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Biomedical Applications of Vibration and Acoustics in Therapy, Bioeffect and Modeling

Description | Details

The primary objective of this book is to compile the latest research topics on biomedical therapy, bioeffects and modeling techniques that utilize vibration and acoustics. This book includes three parts. The first part is dedicated to therapy, which is comprised of five chapters: two chapters on the respiratory system, one chapter on the nervous system and two on cell culture.

The second part in two chapters explores the bioeffects of vibration and acoustics on human body parts including the effect of occupational vibration exposure on different parts of the body. The third part demonstrates how the concepts of vibration and acoustics are implemented through modeling of various biological and biomedical systems and elements.

Readers will find this text a valuable asset in keeping them abreast of the latest techniques in these area. It will appeal not only to fellow researchers, but also to clinicians, practitioners, lecturers and students in this exciting and vital field of study.

  • Copyright:
    All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ©  2008  ASME
  • ISBN:
    9780791802755
  • No. of Pages:
    350
  • Order No.:
    802755
Front Matter PUBLIC ACCESS
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  • Part 1: Therapy, Section 1: Respiratory System

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      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Asthma
      • 1.2.1 Medicinal Treatments
      • 1.2.2 Alternative Treatments
      • 1.2.3 The Role of Airway Wall Components
      • 1.2.4 The Role of Lung Parenchyma
      • 1.2.5 Heterogenic Behaviour of Airways
      • 1.2.6 The Role of Airway Smooth Muscle
      • 1.3 Dynamics in Respiratory Function
      • 1.3.1 Airway and ASM Dynamics
      • 1.4 Molecular Basis of Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction
      • 1.4.1 The Thick Filament
      • 1.4.2 The Thin Filament
      • 1.4.3 Thick and Thin Filament Polymerization and Depolymerization
      • 1.4.4 The Contractile Process
      • 1.4.5 The Cytoskeleton
      • 1.4.6 Causes of Smooth Muscle Response to Oscillations
      • 1.5 Mathematical Modeling of Smooth Muscle Dynamics
      • 1.5.1 Tissue-Level Empirical Contraction Models
      • 1.5.2 Cross-Bridge Models
      • 1.5.3 Length Adaptation Models
      • 1.6 Future Directions
      • References
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      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Background
      • 2.3 Defining Related Terminology
      • 2.3.1 RDS
      • 2.3.2 Surfactant and Surface Tension
      • 2.3.3 Respiratory System Parameters and Mechanics
      • 2.4 Therapies and Techniques for Treating Neonatal Respiratory Diseases
      • 2.4.1 Surfactant Therapy
      • 2.4.2 Traditional Ventilation Treatments
      • 2.4.3 High-Frequency Ventilation
      • 2.4.4 Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) with Pressure Oscillations
      • 2.4.5 Biologically Variable Ventilation
      • 2.4.6 Summary
      • 2.5 Modeling the Interaction of Neonatal Lungs with Respiratory Devices
      • 2.5.1 A Simplified Single-Compartment Viscoelastic Model
      • 2.5.2 Investigation Into Resonance Phenomena
      • 2.6 Results and Discussion
      • References
  • Part 1: Therapy, Section 2: Nervous System

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      • Abstract
      • 3.1 The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Physiology: Structure and Function
      • 3.2 The BBB and Neurotherapeutics
      • 3.3 Focused Ultrasound (FUS)
      • 3.4 BBB Opening Using FUS and Microbubbles
      • 3.5 Clinical Significance
      • 3.5.1 Neurodegenerative Disease
      • 3.5.2 Drug Delivery in Neurodegenerative Disease
      • 3.5.3 FUS in Facilitating Drug Delivery in Neurodegenerative Disease
      • 3.6 Theoretical Studies on Transcranial Propagation and Thermal Effects, and Their Validation With Experiments
      • 3.7 In Vivo Feasibility of Noninvasive BBB Opening
      • 3.8 Duration of BBB Opening
      • 3.9 In Vivo Feasibility in Alzheimer's-Model (Amyloid Precursor Protein — APP) Mice
      • 3.10 Fluorescence Imaging Study of the Molecular Size Limit Traversing the BBB Opening
      • 3.11 Conclusions
      • References
  • Part 1: Therapy, Section 3: Cell Culture

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      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Functional Adaptation of Bone to the Mechanical Loading Environment
      • 4.3 Use of Mechanical Stimulation to Promote Fracture Healing
      • 4.4 Materials and Methods for the Investigation of the Effects of Mechanical Vibration on Cultured Osteoblasts
      • 4.4.1 Cell Cultures
      • 4.4.2 Experimental Setup
      • 4.4.3 Experimental Methods
      • 4.4.4 Statistical Analyses
      • 4.5 Results and Discussion for the Investigation of the Effects of Mechanical Vibration on Cultured Osteoblasts
      • 4.5.1 Cell Proliferation
      • 4.5.2 Bone Matrix Generation
      • 4.5.3 ALP Gene Expression
      • 4.6 Mechanism of Functional Adaptation of Osteoblasts to the Mechanical Loading Environment
      • 4.7 Summary
      • References
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      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Functional Adaptation of Articular Cartilage to Mechanical Loading
      • 5.3 Use of Mechanical Stimulation for the Production of Regenerative Cartilage Tissue
      • 5.4 Materials and Methods for the Investigation of the Effects of Ultrasound Stimulation on Chondrocytes in Three-Dimensional Culture
      • 5.4.1 Cell Cultures
      • 5.4.2 Experimental Setup
      • 5.4.3 Experimental Methods
      • 5.4.4 Statistical Analyses
      • 5.5 Results and Discussions for the Investigation of the Effects of Ultrasound Stimulation on Chondrocytes in Three-Dimensional Culture
      • 5.5.1 Cell Proliferation
      • 5.5.2 Quantity Of Chondroitin Sulfates In Supernatants
      • 5.5.3 Histologic Examination
      • 5.5.4 Immunohistochemical Examination
      • 5.5.5 Type II Collagen Gene Expression
      • 5.6 Mechanism of Functional Adaptation of Chondrocytes to Mechanical Loading
      • 5.7 Summary
      • References
  • Part 2: Bioeffects

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      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Strategy Adopted When Reviewing the Literature
      • 6.3 Epidemiological Evidence Relating to HAVS
      • 6.4 Evidence From Previous Reviews Linking HTV and Symptoms of HAVS
      • 6.5 Epidemiological Studies of HAVS
      • 6.5.1 Prevalence and Incidence of HAVS
      • 6.5.2 Latency Period
      • 6.6 Risk factors for HAVS
      • 6.6.1 Occupation
      • 6.6.2 Vibration Exposure
      • 6.6.3 Smoking
      • 6.6.4 Postural and Environmental Factors
      • 6.7 HAVS interventions
      • 6.7.1 Introduction
      • 6.7.2 Mechanical Interventions
      • 6.7.3 Production Systems∕Organizational Culture
      • 6.7.4 Modifier Interventions
      • 6.7.5 Ceasing Exposure
      • 6.8 Summary
      • References
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      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 The Sensorimotor System
      • 7.3 Vibration and the Muscle Spindle Organ
      • 7.3.1 After-Effects of Exposure of the Muscle Spindle to Vibration
      • 7.4 Vibration and Cutaneous Sensors
      • 7.5 Vibration and the Central Nervous System
      • 7.6 Occupational Effects of Vibration
      • 7.7 Therapeutic Uses of Musculoskeletal Vibration
      • 7.7.1 Subthreshold Vibration
      • 7.7.2 Vibration, Exercise, and Training
      • 7.7.3 Vibration and Bone Density
      • 7.8 Future Studies
      • 7.9 Conclusion
      • References
  • Part 3: Modeling, Section 1: Biological Systems

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      • Abstract
      • 8.1 The Structure of Respiratory System
      • 8.2 A Distributed Model for the Respiratory Airways
      • 8.8.1 Governing Equations
      • 8.2.2 Tube Wall Inertia
      • 8.2.3 Linearized Model
      • 8.2.4 Mathematical Model
      • 8.3. Acoustic Impedance Response of Respiratory System
      • 8.3.1. Uniform Model
      • 8.3.2. Gradual Model
      • 8.3.3. One-Generation Two-Branch Model
      • 8.3.4. Two-Generation Four-Branch Model
      • 8.4. Application of Acoustic Impedance Response in Diagnoses of Respiratory System and Other Clinical Uses
      • 8.4.1. Diagnoses of Respiratory System
      • 8.4.2. Monitoring Respiratory Impedance During Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
      • 8.4.3 Forced Oscillation Technique to Reflex Bronchodilation
      • References
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      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.1.1 Background
      • 9.1.2 Objectives
      • 9.2 Modeling Sound Transmission in the Bronchial Airways
      • 9.2.1 Overview
      • 9.2.2 Mathematical and Diagrammatic Description of the Subglottal Model
      • 9.3 Acoustic Boundary Element Model of the Lung Parenchymae & Chest wall
      • 9.3.1 Basic Theory
      • 9.3.2 Coupled Boundary Conditions for Surrounding Shell-Like Structure
      • 9.3.3 Simulating a Pneumothorax (PTX)
      • 9.3.4. Coupling the Subglottal Airway Acoustic Model With the Parenchymae∕Chest Wall BE∕FE Model
      • 9.4 Theoretical and Numerical Studies
      • 9.4.1 Theoretical Study of the Effect of Pneumothorax on Airway Input Acoustic Impedance
      • 9.4.2 Theoretical Validation of the BE Model
      • 9.4.3 Numerical Validation of BE Model for PTX Case
      • 9.5 Experimental Phantom Study to Evaluate Acoustic Boundary Element Model
      • 9.5.1 Setup
      • 9.5.2 Results and Discussion
      • 9.6 Numerical Study of the Visible Human Male — Merging the Airway Model With the Lung∕Chest Model
      • 9.6.1 Setup
      • 9.6.2 Results and Discussion
      • 9.7 Conclusion
      • References
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      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Background
      • 10.2 Anatomy of the Vocal Folds
      • 10.3 Finite Element Model
      • 10.3.1 Geometrical Model
      • 10.3.2 Materials Definition in the Model
      • 10.3.3 Contact Problem
      • 10.3.4 Assembled Model
      • 10.3.5 Mesh
      • 10.4 Experiment Investigation
      • 10.4.1 Modal Analysis and Testing
      • 10.4.2 Larynx Model
      • 10.4.3 Experimental Set-Up
      • 10.4.4 Experiment Results
      • 10.5 Fe Model Validation
      • 10.5.1 Experiment Validation
      • 10.5.2 Comparison With In Vivo Test
      • 10.6 Results Analysis
      • 10.6.1 Frequency Analysis
      • 10.6.2 Dynamic Response
      • 10.6.3 Dynamic Analysis
      • 10.7 Conclusions
      • References
  • Part 3: Modeling, Section 2: Medical Devices

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      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Characterization of Noise in MRI Scanners
      • 11.2.1 Acoustic Noise Measurement and Analysis
      • 11.2.2 Acoustic Noise Modeling and Analysis
      • 11.3 Acoustic Noise Control
      • 11.3.1 Acoustic Noise Abatement
      • 11.3.2 Active Acoustic Noise Control
      • 11.4 Summary
      • References
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      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Characterization of Vibration in MRI Scanners
      • 12.2.1 Vibration Measurements and Analysis
      • 12.2.2 Vibration Modeling and Analysis
      • 12.3 Vibration Control
      • 12.4 The Link Between Vibration and Acoustic Noise
      • 12.5 Summary
      • References
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      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Microcantilever-Based Biosensing
      • 13.2.1 Surface Stress Sensing
      • 13.2.2 Mass Sensing
      • 13.3 Different Bio-Detection Methods
      • 13.4 Modeling Microcantilever Beam With Adsorbed Biological Species
      • 13.4.1 Static Mode (Deflection-Detection Method)
      • 13.4.2 Dynamic Mode (Frequency-Response Measurement)
      • 13.5 Recent Advances in Nanomechanical Cantilever Sensors' Modeling and Sensitivity Enhancement
      • 13.6 Common Materials Used in Nanocantilever Biosensors
      • 13.7 Common Methods of Nanocantilever Actuation
      • 13.7.1 Actuation Due to Ambient Conditions
      • 13.7.2 Actuation Using External Energy Sources
      • 13.8 Common Methods of Signal Transduction
      • 13.8.1 Optical Readout
      • 13.8.2 Piezoresistive Readout
      • 13.8.3 Piezoelectric Readout
      • 13.8.4 Capacitive Readout
      • 13.9 Applications
      • 13.10 Summary
      • References
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