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Geological Engineering: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference (ICGE 2007)

  • Author(s)/Editor(s):
  • Published:
    2009
  • DOI:
    10.1115/1.802922
Description | Details

The 2007 International Conference on Geological Engineering (ICGE 2007), was organized by the China University of Geosciences-Wuhan, and sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), China Geological Survey, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), The University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), The Center for Underground Infrastructure Research and Education (CUIRE), China Continental Scientific Drilling Association, Wuhan Society of Rock and Soil Engineering, Moscow College of Exploration Engineering, and Chinese Academic Committee of Geological Society.

ICGE 2007 covered all the various aspects of Geological Engineering, Topics included geologic hazard forecast and prevention, theory and technology on rock and soil mass prevention, drilling technology for mineral resources and oil/gas and other applications, continental and ocean scientific drilling, theory and technology on underground construction, safety technique on geological engineering, trenchless and underground logistics technology, trenchless technology and asset management of critical underground infrastructure, and development and education reform on geological engineering.

  • Copyright:
    All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ©  2009  ASME
  • ISBN:
    9780791802922
  • No. of Pages:
    1760
  • Order No.:
    802922
Front Matter PUBLIC ACCESS
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  • Track 1. Drilling and Exploitation of Mineral Resources

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      A simplified method has been developed to estimate the pull loads on polyethylene pipe installed by a mini (or midi) - HDD process. The method and associated formulae are based upon approximations to the equations and procedures provided in ASTM F 1962, Standard Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings. The objective is to provide a convenient means of identifying potentially problematic mini-HDD installations and∕or to aid in the pipe selection process, in contrast to the extensive planning or analytical investigations characteristic of typical maxi-HDD projects. The proposed mathematical model reflects the major route parameters (bore length, planned bends) and buoyant weight for an empty PE pipe, and also accounts for unplanned curvatures resulting from path corrections in a typical mini-HDD installation.
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      Based on electromagnetic field theory, the paper has studied the property of the signal propagation and attenuation of electromagnetic wave for MWD transiting through strata. Some conclusions have been drawn as follows. Firstly the signal attenuation will be increase with the decrease of the stratum resistibility. Secondly in the frequency range form 1 to 10 Hz the stratum absorptivity is tiny and does not add noticeably with the increase of the electromagnetic wave frequency and the decrease of the stratum resistibility. Thirdly in the frequency range from 1 to 10000 Hz the stratum absorptivity does not increase noticeably with the decrease of the dielectric constant of the stratum. The conclusions as mentioned above have provided the theoretic foundation for the design, study and application of the electromagnetic wave MWD.
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      Population growth and development have overwhelmed expansion of collection systems across much of the United States. Many cities continue to rely on water and sewer pipes that were put in the ground over a century ago. In 1980, the federal government budgeted $9.7 billion for upgrading water and sewer systems. Adjusted for inflation, that sum would be approximately $22 billion today. However in fiscal 2002 EPA funding had dwindled to $2.2 billion a year, a tenth of what was being spent twenty-five years ago.Maximizing efficiencies and programming Operation and Maintenance (O&M) in a systematic way is critical to sustaining the buried municipal infrastructure. Several municipal jurisdictions in the United States have had success implementing programs that have adopted ASSET Management principles and philosophies, along with innovative technologies to create solutions to address the funding gap. This paper will present two case studies, one for a large population center in the U.S., and the other for a small city.
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      Ground displacements and borehole stability are always of prime concern during trenchless technology installations under pavements, and in close proximity to existing buried utilities and structures. Stable boreholes also relate to successful completion of the projects. The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT), University of Missouri — Columbia, Michigan State University, and several industry participants have joined forces to conduct a research program to evaluate borehole stability. The objective of this research is to study the ground movements caused by pipe jacking, pipe ramming, guided boring (also known as pilot tube microtunneling), and horizontal directional drilling methods. The soil displacement in the vicinity of the cutterhead, reamer and at the ground surface will be examined. To conduct the research, several field installations were conducted at the University of Missouri's Capsule Pipeline Research Center during the summer of 2002. In addition, an actual road crossing with pipe jacking method was closely monitored. The results of these unique field evaluations were incorporated in the MoDOT specifications and guidelines and a summary will be presented in this paper. The results of this research show that, when properly used, trenchless construction methods can be cost saving options capable of installing utility and pipelines under roads and highways with minimum soil and ground movements.
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      The real-time drill footage and velocity needs precisely measuring in the field of drilling. The paper studies the vibration-proof circuit based on the photoelectric encoder technique for measuring such parameters. According to the features of four kinds of interference pulses, some methods on preventing against their interventions are put forward respectively. The first (I) and second (II) interference pulses can be removed by special hardware, and the third (III) and forth (IV) ones can be removed by real-time compensation. The vibration-proof circuit has been designed with Verilog Hardwire Description Language (Verilog HDL) and complex programmable logic device (CPLD) using the theories of designing synchronizing circuit. The circuit simulation results show that the designed circuit can work well under the bad drilling environment.
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      This paper considers the issues surrounding the national and international development and maintenance of expertise in tunneling and trenchless technology. Diffusion of the technology for both tunneling and trenchless technology can be quite rapid but in somewhat different patterns. Having the technology become part of the established engineering or construction practices in a country, however, is more difficult due to the need to gain widespread acceptance of the technique and the need to develop local engineering expertise that is fully familiar with the technique. The paper covers three main topics: the worldwide transportability of innovation in tunneling and trenchless technology; the findings of earlier studies of U.S. national competitiveness in underground construction technology; and the example of the rapid development of TBM technology in the Netherlands.
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      Relative characteristics of XC and clay are discussed firstly, and the effects of the presence of clay, XC and the polyethylene glycol, and content of XC on drilling fluids are analyzed. The results show the interactions among NaCl, KCl, clay, polyethylene glycol and XC greatly affect the rheological behavior of drilling fluids, and there is a critical temperature in the low-temperature range at which the viscosity of drilling fluids increases rapidly. Adding clay increases viscosity and fluid loss of drilling fluids. With temperature higher than critical temperature, increment of the content of KCl and XC may reduce viscosity, and also reduces the low-temperature fluid loss later. With temperature lower than critical temperature, content of KCl should be reduced in order to avoid rapid increment of viscosity. For relative drilling fluid system, 5% polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 10000 and 0.25% XC combined with 15% NaCl + 5% KCl or 20% NaCl are suitable.
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      Most gas hydrates are buried stably in the formations which locate 0–1000m below seafloor. The global climate, oceanographic and tectonic processes can affect the stability conditions of gas hydrate, resulting in highly dynamic changes of subseafloor environments. A coupled seafloor∕borehole observatory system can be used to monitor the chemical, microbiological and physical data to achieve a better understanding of these changes and the carbon cycling in gas hydrate-bearing continental margin. When the borehole instrumentations are deployed, the geomechanical stability of hydrate-bearing formation should be assessed if it can support the borehole instrumentations. Some drilling and completion methods will be taken to reinforce and stabilize the weak and friable hydrate-bearing formation, which can realize a long-term observation. These dynamics can only be understood through time-series monitoring of complementary parameters over space and time, and monitoring can be best accomplished. One of the goals of setting gas-hydrate observatories should be serving for estimating resource reserves and drilling well of gas hydrate exploitation in the future. Therefore such parameters as the density, resistivity, pore pressure, hydrate saturation, permeability, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus and etc should be obtained in the borehole monitoring system. According to the above analysis, the authors designed a new borehole monitoring system for marine gas hydrates and discussed the relatively key problems in its development.
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      Gas hydrate is taken as an alternative energy in future. To explore and exploit gas hydrate buried in certain depth underground, drilling wells is necessary. Because of severe drilling situation and hydrate dissociation, the borehole instability stands out when drilling in gas hydrates bearing formations and is one of the main difficulties confronted with exploring and exploiting natural gas hydrate. The main factors affecting borehole stability include rock physical and mechanical properties, characteristics of hydrate dissociation in porous sediments and drilling fluids. It's an effective way of solving borehole instability of gas hydrate bearing formations by establishing proper thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled elastic & plastic analysis model and developing drilling fluid systems which have high-performance, low-temperature and anti-sloughing based on the study these factors via experiments and numerical simulation.
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      In oil drilling the failures of PDC drill bits are exhibited as erosive wear, dropping and breaking of cutters, so the erosion and corrosion resistance of the matrix is one of the key factors affecting the quality of PDC bits. In order to understand the degradation mechanism of matrix materials and their impregnated diamond composites for drill bits, a kind of loop recirculation rig is adopted to measure total mass loss TML, mass loss E by pure mechanical erosion, and then through calculation the mass loss C+S by corrosion and synergy is obtained. In the three kinds of WC-base matrix materials studied and their impregnated diamond composites. Their volume loss by corrosion and synergy will increase with the increase of Cu-Sn alloy contents; the increase of Ni and WC contents will lower the volume loss of matrix materials. Besides these, the resistance of erosion and corrosion of impregnated diamond composites is closely related to the bonding strength between matrix and diamonds.
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      The problem that drilling middle-soft to middle-hard formations with hard alloy rotary percussion drilling technology was put forward in the paper, which often occurred in drilling. Structure and working principle of a new kind of steel ball impactor for rotary percussion drilling was dissertated, at the same time, the anvil, key component part of steel ball impactor, was analyzed in detail. The results of outdoor and indoor rotary percussion drilling tests on steel ball impactor were introduced at length. The relational expression of blow frequency between air pressure and air quantity was set up with method of mathematical statistics based on tests research, which can be used for forecasting and controlling blow frequency and other important technological parameters of steel ball impactor. The study indicates that working performance of steel ball impactor is stable and reliable, drilling efficiency can be raised by big percentages and drilling cost can be cut when drill with steel ball impactor, it has a extensive application prospect.
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      China is a water-lack country, and water shortage has become one of the major problems influencing normal drilling in dry regions. A large amount of water would be needed by using traditional drilling technology, and it works abnormally in badly aleak strata. Developing a water-saving drilling technology used in water deficient areas is an urgent task for drilling engineers. This paper introduces the working principle of and technical keys to a new water-saving drilling technology and its field applications in Shanxi province. This technology uses groundwater to realize bottom-hole drilling fluid local circulation and is mainly applicable for dry regions where there is no surface water; leakage occurs in upper strata and water exists in deeper strata. It comes into being water pressure pulse by a plunger pump and a special device without adding any large equipment, periodic water pressure change drives the plunger inside hole to do reciprocating movement for bottom-hole drilling fluid local circulation. Indoor and field tests indicate that it consumes a small amount of water, does not disturb strata, and can improve drilling efficiency and reduce drilling costs. With implementation of state geology investigation strategy, drilling work capacity increases greatly, and the new water-saving drilling technology will have both very high economical value and application prospective.
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      With the rapid increase of economy, roads as a means of transportation have reached their limits in the big cities in China. Traffic jams, environmental problems caused by transportation vehicles, lower transport efficiency, and the city logistic distribution bottleneck of E-Commerce are becoming the main problems faced with the government in every city in China. For example, in Beijing-the capital of P. R. China, the freight transportation volume has increased by 15% per year in the last 10 years. The number of private car has reached 2,000,000 in 2003. The traffic saturation has reached or even in excess of 100 percent in the most main roads in Beijing. As a result of these causes, the average traffic speed has been reduced by 50 percent over those 10 years ago, and is reducing by 2 km∕year in the urban area. So an Underground Freight Transportation Network through Pipeline would be a sustainable way to deal with the city syndrome in Beijing.In this paper, the authors introduce firstly the basic concept of urban underground freight transportation system by pipeline∕tube and its history and its research status. Furthermore, the necessity, urgency and the technical feasibility to develop this system in Beijing are discussed in detail. As the main body of this paper, the authors put forward a brief plan to build an underground freight transportation network system through pipeline in Beijing. The transportation pipeline network is planned beneath the main traffic roads and some distribution terminals∕stations are planned along the transportation pipeline to distribute the goods to the consumers. In addition, the evaluations of the network, the analysis of the potential capacity of the system, the underground pipeline construction methodology and some key problems to be considered firstly to build this system are also included in this paper.
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      New technologies for underground freight transportation (UFT) are reviewed here. This paper compares them and discusses the pros and cons of each case. Then, an in-depth treatment of the PCP (pneumatic capsule pipeline) for UFT is presented, and implications for the world in using PCP to improve freight transportation are discussed.
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      Firstly, the paper presents the status of the research of circulating pressure loss. Then the mechanism of shear thinning property is analyzed. With the example of Bingham fluid, the checking results of software calculation and engineering examples demonstrate that the critical ratio of yield point to plastic viscosity (YP∕PV) is corresponded with certain engineering conditions and apparent viscosity. The circulating pressure loss with the critical YP∕PV ratio is the least. Laboratory tests and software calculations indicate that improving mud lubricating ability and solids control technologies are also effective technologies of decreasing circulating pressure loss.
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      This paper presents status of long distance horizontal direction drilling technologies in recent years in China. Then connecting theory analysis with typical projects, the mud technologies of long distance horizontal direction drilling is studied from several aspects such as borehole protection performance, well cleaning ability, lubricity, and instant dissolving capacity of additives, on-site maintenance and assorted technologies.
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      This paper analyzes the main influencing factors of the guided drilling trace in pipe paving project of trenchless: the angle and area of drilling bit's guide plate, the strata characters, the elastic bending and anamorphic character of the pipe, the size of fore coarse-pitch drilling tools and the advance rate of drilling bit. Taking the mastery of guiding strength as the technical essence and combine the solid geometry with visual C++ programming technique; 3D quantitative and visual computer simulative method has been established innovatively, and has developed relevant software system which has gained actual effect notably.
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      In order to acquire the information about diamond exposure on the crown of impregnated diamond bit, digital image processing technology was employed to obtain image of diamond distribution following these steps: surface treatment of bit crown, pretreatment and binarization of crown image, restoration of diamond grains. On the basis of binary image, protruded diamond grains were numbered and the uniformity of diamond distribution in matrix was assessed with coefficient of variation of the density of diamond exposure as index. Results showed that the data of diamond exposure obtained by image processing technology basically agreed with that of microscopic observation, with relative error less than 15%.
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      Analytical method was used to analyze the drilling and sampling process of the remote-control seabed sampler, which took the dynamic load on the sampling tube and soil strength change caused by vibration into consideration. The effects on penetrating resistance were evaluated which refer to thickness and diameter of sampling tube, friction angle and absorption factor between soil and tube, and penetrating speed. So that a formula to calculate exciting force was gained The simulated results showed that a) drill pressure had an obvious influence on static-pressed penetration depth, but the depth would be small, so other forces should be applied if the shear strength of seabed deposition was great; b) diameter and thickness of sampling tube were of vital importance, they cannot be arbitrarily increased because of the disturbance to sampler and the increase of weight; c) during the drilling process, exciting frequency should be controlled according to the resistance to fulfill the requirement of penetration speed and disturbance degree; The paper gave us a guidance to determine how to design parameters of sampler and to control the drilling parameters.
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      The natural gas hydrates are ice-like crystalline compounds that contained in the sea bottom and the continental permanent belt. As huge reserves it is possible to become one of the most important energy sources in the future. The aim of hydrate production is to shift the thermodynamic equilibrium in a three-phase system (water—hydrate—gas) and release hydrocarbon gas from the decomposing hydrate. Thus the properties of hydrate dissociation at different physical conditions have important impact on the hydrate production. In the paper dissociation experiments were conducted on laboratory to synthesis hydrate at constant temperature and dissociation kinetics equation of the hydrate particles were established with the gas-solid reaction kinetics principle. From the experimental result and kinetics equation in different temperature and diffusion coefficient to the speed of dissociation we could find that: When the hydrate dissociation is under 60□, the high temperature can effectively speed up the dissociation rate. In the same reservoir temperature the increase of the diffusion coefficient also can enhance dissociation rate. Temperature and diffusion coefficient influence law to hydrate dissociation is concluded which provides a theoretical basis to the hydrate reservoir production.
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      Derrick is the main component of the full-hydraulic core drill rig. It plays a key role on the capacity, efficiency, security and reliability of the drill rig. Because of the complexity of the structure and stress status, the current calculation method can't satisfy the design requirement. The derrick designed by normal method has many disadvantages, such as low stress level and stock utilization, high weight and costs. This paper analyzed the structure and nodes of the derrick by ANSYS software, the optimum dimensions and angle between the main rod and branch rod of K-joint were derived through optimization design, the weight of derrick was reduced greatly. The results offered theoretic guidance for the reasonable design of derrick.
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      Based on the downhole technology and the Scheme for offshore Cone Penetration Test, the equipment was developed which could work steadily from 10m to 100m below the sea level and penetrate to the maximal depth of 120m. The hard cores of the offshore CPT system: Internal Penetration Assembly, Seabed Base and the penetration speed control also were explicated. In the dock and seabed test, the equipment could perform the CPT operation normally according to the downhole technology and get the CPT data of the seabed stratum, so the scheme was designed rationally and the equipment achieved the offshore CPT technology.
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      This paper presents the construction condition of deviation control and correction of CCSD Well-1. Technological measurements of deviation control and correcting during the construction process of CCSD-1 have been analyzed theoretically. Meanwhile the author discusses the construction experiences and lessons, the principles of control and correcting deviation in deep well construction of hard rock.
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      So far, Pu-Guang gas field is the largest gas field of marine facies which has been found in china. The practice showed that the conventional mud drilling techniques can not meet the requirement of rapid exploitation need of Pu-guang gas field. The air drilling, nitrogen drilling and air percussion drilling have been introduced in the upper continental facies of Pu-guang gas field, and gas drilling test and application has successfully expanded to Xu-jia-he formation. Compared with conventional mud drilling, penetration rate of gas drilling increase 3∼8 times, and the time for single well drilling decreased 60∼90 days. Serious leakage, borehole deviation, and other complex issues were controlled very well, and drilling efficiency increased quite significant. Gas drilling technology has been a core technique of speeding up Pu-guang gas field exploitation, and that is worth popularizing application in Pu-guang and around area.
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      Acoustic emission is an important physical phenomenon when materials are deformed and fractured due to inner distortion or outer loading. It is also a direct parameter to show the mechanical property of rocks. Detecting or monitoring acoustic emission is significant in rock material failure theory and engineering. Because electromagnetism ultrasonic detection implements have some disadvantages of poor interference immunity, low sensitivity and inferior reliability, acoustic emission detection based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor is put forward to monitoring rocks. The strain and ultrasonic detection principles of FBG sensors are analyzed, at the same time, experimental system based on FBG ultrasonic sensor detection is also set up to simulate ultrasonic detection. The testing results of 500kHz acoustic shock signal and response are shown. A numerical simulation code RFPA is used to study rock acoustic emission. Mud and sand materials from river are used to process rock specimen. Rock specimen failure experiments are fulfilled via numerical control press device, which generate acoustic emission during the process of rock deformation and failure. Rock acoustic emission experimental signals' energy and counts are detected by FBG ultrasonic sensor detection system, which elementally proves FBG sensor can detect acoustic emission. Simulation and experiments of rock specimen give some useful results. All these show that FBG ultrasonic sensor can monitor rock distortion and failure effectively and is a novel technology and method in rock engineering.
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      As we all know, it is very difficult to pave any pipe in a complex stratum involving hard stratum, middle-hard stratum and backfilling stratum especially for the narrow space for directional drilling machine. However, a pipe-paving project for waste hot water drainage was fulfilled successfully by the author and his colleagues last year. Based on that experience, many new key high-technologies and measures used in that project are introduced in this paper such as the wireless navigation, the hydraulic correction, the forward direction reaming and the drilling with a tube followed. That project shows the pipe-paving project using a small trenchless rig in the narrow place could be finished successfully in the complex stratum of the hard rock and the mid-hard rock with some high new technologies. And the first application of the hydraulic correction technology combined with the machinery and waterpower is very successful. In that project, a special reaming bit is adopted for the forward reaming both in hard and mid-hard rock. The self-made electropult and receiver of the electromagnetic wave is so stable, reliable, and accurate that can satisfy the requirements of the trenchless pipe-paving navigation well.
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      With the development of the city and the following need of civil construction, many underground lines in the city are required to be constructed, replaced or renovated, which leads to the fast growth of researches on trenchless technology. Horizontal directional drilling rig, the most common equipment used in the trenchless pipe-paving, is improved rapidly both at home and abroad in recent years. But currently, most of them are middle or large type in our country which can not meet the needs of some special construction conditions such as the busiest street of the city, narrow lawn or garden, too crowd for the large rig to be fixed on. And in other special engineering need to cross railway, highway or river, the revetment of the railway or the bank of the river cannot also provide suitable space for large rig to work. In those conditions mentioned above, a mini type horizontal directional drilling rig is needed. A mini rig designed in this paper is simple, light, conveniently dismounting and moveable easily and can be disassembled into 4 units whose weight is no more than that of the motor to meet those special engineering. At same time, just a small shaft, 600×1600×800mm in size, can well meet the need of this rig drilling.
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      In order to solve the problem of low efficiency and short service life of hot pressed diamond bit in drilling into hard and compact formation, internal relations between diamond exposure of hot pressed bit and rock abrasiveness were analyzed in this paper. Research on matrix performances of hot pressed diamond bit was firstly carried out. Through some experiments and theoretical analyses, steel-bonded carbide impregnated diamond bit was trial-manufactured by hot pressing method and great progress was made to overcome the difficulties of drilling in hard and compact formation. Field examinations of steel-bonded carbide bits in drilling hard and compact formation indicated the penetration rate had increased to 1.18m∕h from 0.5m∕h and the service life had increased to 21.31m from 10m in average compared to WC-based diamond bit. The result showed the steel-bonded carbide diamond bit has good performances for drilling in hard and compact formation.
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      The term asset management can be confusing when applied to the water (i.e., storm, sanitary, and drinking) industry. Current managers are often convinced that they are already managing their assets. To some extent, all water utilities are applying some management principles to their operation. When the term asset management is used in this paper, it will refer to a strategic program to develop comprehensive and integrated business administration, financial management and organizational behavior systems which is proactive.
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      The two catalysts that have spurred a boom in the construction of underground conduits in the United States has been the demand for natural gas and voice∕data telecommunication networks. Traditional construction methods of underground conduits have included plowing and trenching. However, when environmentally sensitive areas are encountered or when working in urban areas with a congested utility corridor, the traditional methods can become unfeasible. Trenchless technology (TT) consists of a wide range of methods, materials, and equipment to install new underground pipelines and utility systems with minimal excavation of the ground. One such method is horizontal directional drilling (HDD). The development, selection, and utilization of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) technology have expanded rapidly over this past decade. The reason for this exceptional growth is the desire to install underground conduits with minimum impact on society and the environment. The benefits of HDD are quite apparent when compared to the conventional construction process. However, it is necessary to evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of HDD methods, on a project-to-project basis by considering all the criteria important for the decision task. This paper presents a framework for a decision support system to assist construction managers in selecting the most appropriate technology for a project by systematically evaluating five groups of criteria and subcriteria with respect to the knowledge based preference of the user and the project specific situation.
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      Renewal of aging underground infrastructure is a major challenge that municipalities in North America face every day. Traditional replacement of these underground utilities uses opencut excavation methods that can be expensive, particularly in built-up areas. In contrast, trenchless technologies use new methods, materials, and equipment that require a minimum of excavation. These new methods are considered much more cost-effective. However, in order to compare methods, engineers and project owners want more data. This article provides a comparison of the estimated costs of the trenchless method known as pipe bursting with the open-cut method for replacing the sewer pipelines in the City of Troy, Michigan. The research found that the pipe-bursting method was much less expensive than the open-cut method. We conclude that using trenchless methods, such as pipe bursting, could save municipalities millions of dollars in the renewal of their of underground utilities systems.
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      Matrix formula experiment is an important content in the research of hot pressing diamond tools. The experiment of iron-based matrix formula was conducted based on extreme vertices design of mixture regression. Iron mass percentage, phosphorus mass percentage, nickel mass percentage and cobalt mass percentage were selected as four factors of experiment. Rockwell hardness (HRB value) of matrix was used as experiment index, and regression model of four factors quadratic polynomial was applied. The coefficients of regression equation were solved by “Regression” tool in Excel. Optimum matrix formula, corresponding to the highest hardness forecast, was solved by “Solver” tool in Excel. Calculation result showed that when matrix formula was: Fe 48.5wt.%, P 2.5wt.%, Ni 8wt.%, Co 8.0wt.%, the matrix had the highest hardness (HRB 117.8). Proving trial indicated the experiment result agreed well with the forecast value of regression, which showed that the application of extreme vertices design in matrix formula experiment of hot pressing diamond tools is reasonable and reliable.
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      This paper gives a brief introduction of the main components, the working principle and the main technical parameters of ZTS-172M Electromagnetic Measurement while Drilling (EM-MWD). To check up the performance of ZTS-172M EM-MWD, the field test of 5 wells have been carried out in Shengli Oilfield and Liaohe Oilfield. Signals, emitted from depth underground 1600 meters in Shengli oilfield and 2400 meters in Liaohe oilfield, have been received successfully by ZTS-172M EM-MWD. The results show that ZTS-172M EM-MWD have made primary success, what we need do next is to optimize the performances of the system to meet the needs of China Oilfield.
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      Based on systemic in-house and in-situ experiments on tensile strength of coal with brazil method and sleeve fracturing technique, this paper made an introduction of the basic theory, experiment equipment and experiment method for those tests, analyzed the distribution features of tensile strength values, and evaluated the tensile strength discrepancy and its cause; thus laid a solid foundation for the application of tensile strength index in underground engineering.
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      Diamonds suffering from thermal damage at high temperature are observed through scanning electron microscope before and after diamonds surface are plated with Ni-W-B film by electroless plating. The observed results show that the diamond with a thin film of Ni-W-B alloy suffers from plane damage and the bare diamond suffers from body damage. Thermodynamic analysis and X-rays diffraction results indicate that W in the film firstly acts with oxygen and then oxide deoxidizes and combines with the surface carbon atoms to form a symmetrical carbide film coating on diamond, which is the protection mechanism of the Ni-W-B alloy acting on diamond. This process postpones the thermal damage progress to diamond and improves the property of oxidization resistance.
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      Jacking forces are recognized to be an important parameter for the design and installation of pipes through pipe-jacking methods. Moreover, during pipe installation, significant stresses and deformation can develop within the pipes and pipe joints. In this paper, the so called “t-z” model is utilized for the solution of soil-structure interaction problem at a given stage of the pipe-jacking operation. In this model, the resistance along the length of the soil-structure interface is represented by a series of springs. For non-linear soil springs, the governing differential equation that describes the soil-structure interaction may be discretized into a set of algebraic equations based upon finite difference methods. This system of algebraic equations can be solved to determine the load-displacement behavior and internal stresses of the structural element when subjected to a jacking force.
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      The safety in pipeline construction using Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is the foremost issue considered in the trenchless construction. Based on working experience and the new development of trenchless technologies, the authors discuss the safety of pipeline construction using HDD, including existing pipeline detecting, HDD drill rigs, construction technology and construction management on safety of the staff, borehole conditions and damage to the existing utilities. The authors put forward some opinions and suggestions about safety during pipeline construction using HDD as well.
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      Infrastructure asset management is gaining momentum among water and wastewater system managers across the United States. Water and wastewater professionals are implementing infrastructure asset management programs as a way to achieve the lowest life-cycle cost while maintaining required service levels. There have been several reasons that water and wastewater professionals have turned to asset management, including less federal funding for infrastructure projects, deteriorating existing infrastructure and additional demands resulting from increasing population. While there is no one-size-fits-all solution for water and wastewater utilities, it is widely accepted that asset management is being recognized as a practical pathway forward.
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      Water shortage and pollution are serious problems which are obstacles to sustainable development of the society and the economy in Zhengzhou. To ensure public safety and reduce contamination, it is necessary to assess the groundwater quality in Zhengzhou. Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation is used to confirm the extent of groundwater contamination. The results show that grades I, II and III (the Chinese Water Quality Standards) account for 91% and that grades IV and V account for 9% of the shallow groundwater. Grades I and II account for 94% and 6% of the deep groundwater quality. These results reveal that a part of the shallow groundwater quality is seriously contaminated but deep water quality is safe, which coincides with the results of cluster analysis. Based on the results of fuzzy synthetic evaluation, using Geographic Information System (MAPGIS) to assess the direction of groundwater flow around the monitor wells, we deduce that the industrial wastewater from upstream had probably infiltrated into the deep confined groundwater.
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      This paper presents an economical type of mechanical breaking foam method for foam drilling during drilling operations. Laboratory experiments on foam volume breaking and experiment set-up with a new geometrical design of foam breaking device has been done. Simplified symmetrical two dimension model and simulated calculation study by using K- ε model (2 equations) and steady time on changing air pressure fields inside the bursting foam device is presented. Results of simulated calculation and laboratory experiments have been shown a good agreement with Binary Equation. Foam bubbles expansion and rupture is driven by the different pressures inside the foam bubbles during the fluid circulation which is higher and the ambient pressure inside the foam breaking device which is very low in comparison, on the other hand, performed of different foam fluid velocities through the foam bursting device and increasing of air pressure on the foam fluid flow led to different bursting foam volume bubbles.Decreasing the foam volume during circulation when drilling operation is desirable and will provides less impact on environment in comparison. To confirm the efficiency of the bursting foam device, experiments have been done on different foam agents ABS and SDS; results ranging from 71 to 80% and from 64 to 69.4% respectively are obtained. Process model is accomplished via the solution of designing the device and simulated by fluent program. . It is demonstrated that the amount of air volume, pressure and the fluid velocity in the device are the dominant control mechanism for the final result of foam bursting. Calculation of the changing field pressures and the results computed and discussed.
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      This article introduces the biology non- smoothness, which generally exists in the natural environments. The various superficial shape of the biological living organism, no matter it is on the land, in the sea, or in the air, often has the non- smooth surface, which has evolved for adapting to the different living conditions. The non-smooth surface has the characters of reducing resistance, anti-adherence, and anti-friction. These characteristics have been successfully applied to reduce resistance on airplane surface, reduce sticks on plough surface and wear the engine piston surface. The article also studied the bionic non- smooth drilling bit by applying the bionic non- smooth theory to the design of diamond bit, and the JBD-75S bionic non-smooth diamond bit was developed. Field trial proved that bionic bit was superior to conventional bit both in the drilling effectiveness and in lifetime.
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      Based on underground hydrodynamic principle, this paper analyzed the production mechanism of coal-bed methane well. The production process of CBM well might be divided into two stages: the initial constant rate stage and the late constant head stage. The drawdown of CBM well is mainly subject to water production rate, coefficient of storage, pumping time, permeability and effective radius. For a single CBM well, the effective radius and the drawdown intensity are limited, which directly leads to low gas production.According to superposition principle, the pressure interference among CBM wells enhances the drawdown and gas production. Therefore, by large-scale development the daily production per well and accumulative outputs of the CBM wells will increase. At last this paper compared the gas production of different scale CBM well groups by using the COMET2 coal bed methane simulator, and concluded that the smallest reasonable number of wells in a group is 60–80 for CBM ground mass development.
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      It is difficult for drillers to drill borehole fast and straight for a long time. The technology of automatically vertical drilling was originally developed in Germany and it was largely improved by KTB in 1990s. Later, other kinds of vertical drilling systems used for oilfield were manufactured, like Verti Track by Baker Hughes INTEQ and Power V by Schlumberger. However, it is too expensive for Chinese users and sometimes it can not meet their needs in some special area. A new type of vertical drilling system is introduced in this paper. The system consists of the units of power, inclination measurement, electronic controlling, and hydraulic extending. The feature that all of parts are mounted in the still annulus makes it very simple in term of the structure and thus it gains the benefit of cost saving. The system can produce a horizontal force based on the input which may vary with the formations and the requirement of correcting speed. Since the power unit is driven by pipe string, the system can even work well without drilling fluid. The system completes all of work at downhole so it is also called closed-loop at bottom hole.
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      The author has been practicing geotechnical engineering for primarily pipeline engineering projects for over 30 years and has amassed significant experience under varying site conditions from over 300 projects. He has seen many pipeline projects by either trenchless or open cut construction methods run into serious problems, disputes, arbitrations, mediations, and court proceedings when the engineer of record of the pipeline project failed to do an adequate baseline geotechnical investigation. Often the trench design, dewatering systems, shoring systems, soil support systems, bedding and backfill were inadequate due to the engineer of record not doing an adequate geotechnical analysis and existing utility mapping. These short-comings may result from too much emphasis on profit, too little time to perform all of the steps, or engineering firms allocating budgets that restrict quality engineering of the projects. The pipeline project may also fail due to soil migration. This is a common occurrence when no filter criteria are checked and when no suitable material is designed in the trench zone. Thus, the pipe loses its lateral support, becomes over-deflected, fails to meet the design criteria and in some cases even collapses. Although means and methods are the responsibility of the contractors, licensed engineering professionals simply cannot expect the contractors to construct projects properly when there are too many deficiencies in the engineers' designs, specifications, and mappings of existing utilities. It is not possible for contractors to perform miracles in the field when the engineers of record simply do not afford the standard of care expected of them by their clients. Unnecessary problems can occur when the engineering firm's revenue generation, company growth, and client relations take precedence over staffing pipeline projects with sufficiently qualified engineers. In summary, the success of the pipeline project depends heavily on knowing enough about what is in the ground, how ground conditions behave toward buried pipelines, and how to cope with difficult site conditions. The authors document some guidelines on the above issues using several case histories from their involvement in over 500 pipeline projects.
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      According to the characteristics of turbine drilling at the hole-bottom, by applying mathematics and hydraulic theory etc., the parameters of flushing fluid in the hole annular space were studied and optimized, and a basic and practical equation was set up to help to determine hydraulic friction in scientific drilling. Thus, the relative measures which can reduce fluid moving resistance may be taken to control the pressure effectively in the drilling hole.
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      This study investigated the fabrication method of single crystal diamond∕cemented carbide composite cutter for rock drilling. By adopting just right amount of phosphorus and nickel as sintering aid, the consolidation of diamond∕WC-Co composite was achieved by hot pressing the blended powder in vacuum at 1060°C for 5 min with a pressure of around 20MPa. The sintering temperature was relatively low so that the serious degradation of diamond grit was avoided. The hardness, wear ratio and impact strength of the composite were tested and the results indicated that the composite can meet the demand for rock drilling. The indoor drilling experiments using coring bits set with the prepared diamond∕WC-Co composite cutters were performed and the results indicated that the drilling rate was satisfactory when the rock drilled had a drill ability index of 4–6. Compared with the traditional polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), the single crystal diamond∕WC-Co composite cutter was inexpensive and can be easily manufactured.
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      Mechanisms and evolvement of gas hydrate (GH) reservoirs is the key to clarify profitable gas resource, a kind of dynamic cycling process of GH reservoirs has been investigated. Phenomena pertinent to formation and decomposition of GH deposits have been obtained. Environmental alteration affects significantly existence and occurrence of hydrate deposits. Formation and decomposition of hydrate in sediments determines accumulation and morphology of hydrate-bearing sediments. Formation and decomposition of GH can occur simultaneously. Gas transport in seafloor sediments continuously happens vertically and laterally from free gas to hydrate circularly. Relic hydrates enwrapped by ice on surface in hydrate metastability zone(HMZ) release volumes of gas more than available pore volume locally in permafrost. These facts all verify a kind of dynamic cycling process on GH deposits.
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      Proper pipeline maintenance ultimately saves lives and money, and mitigates risks of pipeline failure. The United States laws have provisions for maintenance of oil and gas pipelines. Pipelines are an essential part of our transportation infrastructure and greatly contribute to our economy. The objective of this paper is to better understand the main causes of pipeline failures. This will lower the risks of damage by improving maintenance practices. More accurate pipeline economical assessment is recommended for proper estimation of the pipeline maintenance funding needs. Outside and inside forces have a significant impact on the life expectancy of pipelines. In order to make the right preventive and corrective maintenance decisions, a proper pipeline inspection and assessment strategy is recommended. The objective of this paper is to determine the main causes of pipeline damages and how to prevent them.
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      In this paper, it is assumed that the structure is taken shape by using the horizontal stresses to bend and twist the rocks after they have deposited. According to the assumption, the mechanical model is advanced and the curved surface is used to fit the deformation structural form. The relationship between curvature and fracture form is set up. The maximum curvature direction is considered to be the reservoir fracture direction and the bigger the value of curvature is and the bigger the value of fracture porosity is. The result gotten from the practice in certain oil filed in Xinjiang by using the above principle and method is certified by FMI logging data.
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      Pipeline is the main manner to transport oil and gas from one place to another. Oil-gas pipeline is built rapidly in the last decade in China. At the same time oil-gas pipeline accident threatens the person's live and property. Corrosion is one of the main reasons that affect the oil-gas pipeline safety operation. Pipeline corrosion damage quantitative risk analysis is carried out on the basis of pipeline function equation and detecting data. The effect of the related parameters uncertainty on the analysis results is resolved by Monte-Carlo method. Then risk value of the pipeline segment is gotten. It has significant meaning to the safety management of oil-gas pipeline. A sample is given to show that: ①pipeline corrosion damage risk analysis on the basis of pipeline function equation and detecting data eliminates the subjective factor to assessment outcome, and improve the objectivity of the risk analysis; ②Monte-Carlo method can resolve the problem of the uncertainty of data, including operation parameter, detecting data etc; ③the pipeline with defect can keep safe by decreasing the operation pressure.
  • Track 2. Drilling and Exploration of the Mineral Resources

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      This paper deals with the orientation ability of clay minerals and its effects on landslides using the result of x-ray diffraction for clay mineral in sliding-zone soil. At first, the basic measured principles for the orientable arrangement of clay minerals were discussed and the methods of the quantitative appraisement for the orientation ability of clay minerals are given. And then, according to the result of x-ray diffraction of the clay minerals in the sliding-zone soil, the orientation ability of clay minerals had been quantitatively analyzed and calculated. Results show that the sliding-zone soil has the orientation ability of clay minerals, expansibility and shrinkage as well as homogeneity of expansion and shrinkage under the action of water. They may cause the continuous reduction of shear strength and structural stability of sliding-zone soil and form landslide because of the expansibility and shrinkage of clay minerals themselves, reversibility and circulation of expansion and shrinkage of sliding-zone soil. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate its application.
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      Based on the fractal simulation of rock joints, two types of numerical direct shear test models of rock joints were established, and the scale effect and the infill effect of the shear strength parameters of the rock joint were studied by using the numerical test method. The results of the first type of numerical direct shear test show that the critical joint size (CJS) exists by which the scale effect of the shear strength parameters of the rock joint can be eliminated. With the increase of the fractal dimension of the rock joint, the scale effect becomes more outstanding and the critical joint size develops larger. The results of the second type of shear direct test show that when the ratio of the infill thickness t to the asperity height a of rock joints (abbreviated as the thickness-height ratio t∕a in the following of this paper) is less than 1, the shear strength parameters of rock joints are controlled by the joint roughness, the mechanical properties of rock wall and infill material, and the shear strength parameters of rock joints decrease rapidly as the t∕a ratio increase. When t∕a is bigger than 1, the shear strength parameters are mainly controlled by the mechanical property of infill material and the value of shear strength parameters indicates infill material.
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      Probability distribution of shear strength parameters, such as cohesion and internal friction angle in sliding zone, has great influence upon reliability of landslides. So it is necessary to study the probability distribution of strength parameters. 27 landslides, whose physical components of sliding zone are similar to Wanzhou city of Three Gorges Reservoir zone, were chosen, 198*8 statistical data of test values of shear strength parameters in sliding zone were collected, hypothetical tests of probability distribution of shear strength parameters in sliding zone were tested by χ2 test and K-S test. Test results show that single test method to determine probability distribution of shear strength parameters in sliding zone has great limitations. For instance, probability distribution of strength parameters cannot be determined in case several hypothesis of probability distribution all can be accepted or rejected. It is necessary to determine the probability distribution of shear strength parameters in sliding zone by using multiple test methods. In connection with 27 landslides data of controlling landslides for the third plan in Wanzhou city of Three Gorges reservoir zone, multiple test methods of determining probability distribution of shear strength parameters in sliding zone are developed in this paper.
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      In order to insure the safety of dyke founded on the liquefiable soils in the earthquake prone area, deformation analysis of dyke earthquake-induced is of prime importance. Dynamic centrifuge model tests and numerical predictions were conducted to investigate the seismic behaviors of dyke with a saturated liquefiable foundation in this paper. And detailed discussions and comparisons between numerical modeling and centrifuge tests were included. Centrifuge tests with peak shaking amplitudes of 0.08, 0.18 and 0.32 g in prototype scale were adopted to simulate the seismic performances of dyke on a saturated soil layer foundation with a relative density of about 30%. Effective stress analysis method based on a multiple shear plasticity model was employed for conducting the numerical predictions and validation. Moreover, the computational results for the case of 0.32 g were compared with the test. It is concluded that the measured and computed responses of settlement on the top of dyke, acceleration and excess pore pressure of sand deposit are in good agreement with each other. The physical and numerical models both indicate that the dyke on the liquefiable soils during earthquakes behaves larger settlement and lateral spread. And the stronger the motion, the larger deformation of dyke is. The ratios of excess pore water pressure are smaller in the liquefiable soil beneath the dyke in spite of larger deformations.
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      It is not applicable for the residual stress of coal-rock that the representation of coal rock damage model is in the form of damage strain relations with explicit function. In this paper, the stress and total strain power curve are drawn in loading and unloading condition by test. The relationship between the elastic modulus and damage energy consumption is analyzed with the plastic strain, it is identified that the rock of the damage energy with non-residual stress in the quasi-static process of the developing, and established the non-dimensional equations of the theoretical model. Finally, it shows that the damage developing is closed when the stress reduces to the residual stress; the residual stress can be determined by the nature of the damage coal rock.
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      During recent few years, many subgrades and cuttings of Hexu and Hean Expressways were badly damaged due to the swelling action of expansive soils. The purpose of our study was to investigate the swelling mechanism of these expansive soils. A series of tests were carried out, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), as well as physical and mechanical tests, in this testing program. Results indicated that the swelling behavior of expansive soil was primarily influenced by clay mineral composition, the natural dispersible degree of soil particles, CEC, and microstructure characteristics, etc. Study results suggest that to better understand the swelling mechanism of expansive soil, more attentions should be paid to these factors, particularly mineral composition and soil structure type.
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      The shear mechanical property is discussed to build a frame using physical property of loess through the shear test and theory of undisturbed loess under the different moisture content and time. It explained the shear strength with macroscopically intensity parameter and microcosmic intensity parameter, including moisture content, dry density, porosity ratio and time. As the dry density increases, the shear strength of undisturbed loess under the different moisture content will scatter. The resistance of the undisturbed loess goes against the shear deformation under the different moisture content. The moisture content has greater sensitivity to the macroscopical intensity parameter, but porosity ratio and dry density have litter sensitivity to it. When w=25, under normal stress 300–400kPa, the macroscopical intensity parameter tends towards stability greatly, explaining the structural stability under this situation of soil. The macroscopical intensity parameter theory and microcosmic intensity parameter theory under the structural parameter theory is feasible. It's a new method to express structural intensity theory of soil, to realize a kind of structural ideas of soil correctly, a kind of way to describe structural intensity of soil to ration.
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      With fast research and development, economic and effectual methods and theories about reducing adsorbed water of clay have been the focal point of all over the world all the time. This experiment studies and uses a new kind of economic and suitable Ionic Soil Stabilizer (ISS for short). How to reduce the adsorbed water of clay is researched. Two kinds of different clays are treated by different matches of ISS and water at first. Then the Atterberg limits test, direct shear test, shrinkage test, free swell test, zeta potential and cation - exchange capacity test are carried on. A lot of results are achieved: when the plastic index decreases, the cohesion increases in the sliding soil of landslide; when the shrinkage limit decreases, the free swell falls and the zeta potential and cation - exchange capacity decrease in the red clay after mixed the ISS. The mechanism is that the clay soil is mixed the ISS, which can replace the exchangeable cation of clay particle surface, change the pair-electricity layers of clay soil particle surface, decrease the thickness of adsorbed water, reduce the cation - exchange capacity, and transfer the hydrophilic clay soil to the hydrophobic by the function of physics and chemistry. National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40672188).
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      Using a meso-mechanical testing system, the characteristics and mechanism of softening and cracking of swelling rock from a railway tunnel studied under different conditions with initial water damages. From mineral component and microstructure of rock, a chain of hydration actions are described to explain that hydration plays an important role in the damage and softening of swelling rock. Comparison of the stress-strain curve is done under different water conditions. The changes of elastic modulus and uniaxial compressive strength under different initial water contents are fitted by exponential functions. From fitting curves, some softening characteristics under different water damage describe the relationship between mechanical characteristics and initial water contents. Clear digital images of initial water damage and its four cracking stages show that, the whole cracking evolution process. Based on meso-damage mechanism, we find out that water environment is one of the most important factors to generate the softening, damage and cracking of swelling rock and then provides some experimental foundations for rock engineering in practice.
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      Different to the fracture network in general rock masses, the rules of the fracture developed in inter-bed layered rock masses has its particular characters. The fracture in inter-bed layered rock masses can be divided into two kinds: bed fracture and tectonic fracture. According to the relation between the bed fracture and tectonic fracture, the tectonic fracture can be subdivided into two kinds: bed bounded fracture and unbounded fracture. And there are some approximately linear relations or non-linear relations between the beds bounded fracture space and the thickness of the strata. In this paper, the development rules of these fractures are generalized firstly, and then the development mechanism of tectonic fractures is introduced. Based on the development rules and the mechanism, a method of simulated the fracture network in inter-bed layered rock masses is put forward. Lastly, through an example the simulation method is applied into the analysis of seepage field in inter-bed layered rock masses. The result shows that the water flow in the inter-bed layered rocks is controlled by the bed fracture and the unbounded joints, and shows that it is necessary to research the simulation of fracture network in the inter-bed layered rock masses.
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      Rock mass classification in rock engineering is an essential stabile analysis based on engineering geology analogue. As national standard of China, BQ qualification is ubiquitous for all kinds of engineering rock. However, rock mass with intercalated bed is mechanically unique, so it is reasonable to modify Formula BQ in order to match its feature. Taking underground cavities of a large hydropower station in Southwest China for example, rock mass structure and quality evaluation were studied. The result agrees basically with the one acquired by RMR System.
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      Based on the tests, the stress transfer, diffusion and intensity changes of reinforced cushion were analyzed. The destroyed mode and bearing capacity calculation method of the reinforced cushion were put forward and the results provide the theory basis for the design of the reinforced cushion.
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      Impact experiments in man-made rock were carried out with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) apparatus in this paper. The impact process was analyzed and the influence of rock porosity on dynamic mechanical behavior was investigated. The stress-strain curves in rock were obtained by the one-dimensional stress wave theory. The curve lays foundation for numeric simulation of rock fracture under impact loading. The damage profiles of rock specimen under the impact loading show that the man-made rock exhibits obvious shear damage under the impact loading because it is a typical porous medium containing large quantities of defects such as pores, cracks and grain boundaries at the microscale. The experimental results also indicated that rock porosity plays an important role in dynamic mechanical behavior.
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      Calcareous sediments generally consists of the remains of marine organism, which tends to crush relatively easily under load, compared to terrigenous materials. This paper presents shear laboratory tests carried out on calcareous sand taken from the South China Sea, and points out that the shear behavior of calcareous sand under medium confining pressures is just similar to that of terrigenous sand under high stress levels. The volumetric strain is larger than that of terrigenous sand when sheared because of particle breakage. The relation of the dilatancy, ratio of stress and confining pressures is also discussed in this paper. The results indicate that the dilatancy and ratio of stress are decreasing as the confining pressures increases.
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      Self-boring in-situ shear pressure meter test (SBISP) is a combination of traditional pressure meter test and laboratory direct shear test. When simply radial load carried out, it equals to pressure meter test. When simply uplift load done, it equals to single uplift pile test. The paper presents the different parts of the apparatus, introduces the loading methods and the mechanical parameters obtained from SBISP. And it also analyses the failure forms, the relationship between uplift stress and shear displacement, and defines the concept of shear reaction coefficient, which can be reference to research on mechanism of uplift piles.
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      Failure criterion of rock-soil-concrete presented briefly in this paper. Making an estimate of strength parameters of rock, soil and pile is very necessary in numerical simulation and stability calculation of pile foundation, excavation pit and slope with the retaining structure. The formulae of calculating cohesion and internal friction angle of rock, soil and the retaining structure(pile) are derived from four combination conditions of two-dimensional and three-dimensional stresses with failure criterions Mohr-Coulomb's inclined line and Mohr's parabola, finally deviation is discussed. The study results have the important theoretical significance and practical value of engineering.
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      In order to research the relationship between rock minuteness structure and macroscopic mechanical behavior, the technique of SEM is applied to marble fracture of surrounding rock in diversion tunnel of a hydropower project, and a lot of information of SEM in fracture is obtained. The main research content is information abstraction and measurement of minuteness structure with computer image processing and analysis techniques and pattern recognition principle.
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      The tests of shear strength of unsaturated loess under different water contents are performed with the tri-axial apparatus specially made for unsaturated soil. The test data show that the shear strength of unsaturated decreases with increasing water contents, the shear strength of unsaturated loess will be close to the minimum when the water content is saturated. As the water content increases, the suction and the safety factor of stability become smaller gradually. The loess slope will be destroyed when the water content comes to a certainty value.
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      Taking the muddy dolomite in the base of the dam of Yujian River Reservoir in Guizhon Province as an example, the author of the paper proposes a new research method: from rock mineral identification to indoor (or outside) test of rock intensity (or formation) finally to determination of rock mass elastic modulus. Based on rock mineral identification and comparative experiments of indoor rigid servo and in-situ point loading, this paper analyzes the clay content in dolomite, saturated uniaxial compressive strength, and elastic modulus, and the regression equation is established as well. Also, with the help of Monte-Carlo simulation technique and rock mass damage fractal modulus, this paper analyzes the elastic modulus of muddy dolomite and establishes the statistic relationship between the clay content in dolomite and the elastic modulus of the rock mass. The proposed method could be adopted in large projects in other similar regions to estimate the rock compressive strength, rock elastic modulus and rock mass elastic modulus in feasibility study when it is necessary to estimate the elastic modulus of the muddy dolomite.
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      Laboratory direct shear test is conducted on cylinder specimens of dry and saturated granites by making use of INSTRON_1346 rock servo testing machine. The specimens are provided by the planned nuclear power plant in Fuqing city of Fujian Province. Through linear regression analysis of the test results, it is indicated that there exist linear relationship between cohesion c, internal friction angle φ of dry granites and the corresponding strength parameters of saturated granites. Thus, this conduces to studying the relationship between shear strength and water content of rock mass and it may also be available for giving some valuable references in engineering designs.
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      We must considerate the factors' influence on slope stability according to its complexity. The material composition of landside and hydro-geological condition are the important factors in slope stability analysis. Take Yang Jiashan slope in Enshi City in western Hubei as an example, the author analyses the material composition of slope (cultivation soil; silty clay; cataclasite; gravel-soil) in this paper, focusing on the loose condition and permeability of cataclasite and gravel-soil, and studying the effect of their concurrent action on slope stability with the rainfall, but not only consider one of the factors. It has some reference significance to the stability evaluation of the slopes.
  • Track 3. Engineering Properties of Rock and Soil

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      Slope roadbed stability in permafrost regions of Qinghai-Tibet Railway is a potential threat to long-term operation. In evaluating slope roadbed stability, thermal stability is of first importance. Through measuring ground temperature at Anduo section for three years, ground temperature changes and the changing trend in the next 50 years have been analyzed. From the research, the conclusions are as follows: ① filling railway embankment makes permafrost temperature field redistribute; asymmetry of slope direction and geometric asymmetry make ground temperature field asymmetric; ② filling railway embankment causes artificial permafrost table of roadbed change and show asymmetric, which changes original thermal balance and makes slope roadbed in a state of dynamic thermal stability; ③ numerical analysis predictions show that in the first 10 years, artificial permafrost table has greater elevation and its asymmetry gradually increases. Beginning from the 20th year, permafrost will completely degrade, and thermal stability in the maximum thawing depth period is the worst in the forecast 10th year.
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      Landslide risk evaluation is influenced by several factors with fuzzy and uncertain characters. At present, most landslide risk evaluation projects mainly use the qualitative experts marking law having certain subjectivity to the results. With regard to the above considerations, based on the analysis of some influencing factors on landslide development, the weight vectors of these factors are quantified by using analytic hierarchy process model, then are introduced into fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. A mathematical model based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is established for landslide risk evaluation. According to these discussions, through evaluating the Green Grass Back NO.1 landslide risk in Wan Zhou district, and comparing the final results with those achieved from the traditional stability calculation method in three kinds of work conditions, and the paper verifies that the application of the model in landslide risk evaluation is legitimate and credible. Project application result indicates that the method reduces the cost, and the disadvantages of personal subjective judgment are avoided, so it's believed that the method researched in the paper has important project practical value.
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      Geologic hazards induced by precipitation mainly include landslide and debris flow, while the monitoring and the prediction of precipitation are the key to geologic hazards prediction. Based on the analysis of the precipitation before and after the geologic hazards formation, the effective precipitation and precipitation intensity are chosen as two key factors for precipitation monitoring and prediction in the forecast of geologic hazards induced by precipitation. The effective precipitation consists of antecedent effective rainfall and current effective rainfall, and the precipitation intensity includes that of one hour, 30 minutes and 10 minutes. The space and time scale of geologic disasters forecasts are determined by different requirements for different levels of disasters mitigation. Under the support of different available precipitation monitoring and forecasting techniques at present, the paper discusses how to monitor, forecast and analyze the antecedent effective rainfall, the current effective precipitation and precipitation intensity for the disasters prediction with different space-time scales.
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      Establishing geological model is the first thing to do to analyze rock slope, while the foremost thing for it is finding out the rock structural. Based on the discontinuities grading, the statistic, geological and real preferred discontinuities are found out for the • grade discontinuities in this paper. The probability model is established and the simulated image by Monte Carlo method is obtained for the real preferred discontinuities. The Ž , • and • grade discontinuities are located on the simulated image. So the rock slope structural is obtained and its geological model is established. It is a qualification for analyzing the deformation and failure pattern, mechanism and primary analyses.
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      It is very important to understand the whole evolvement history of gorge slopes during the process of analyzing slope stability and bridge construction engineering feasibility. Based on the previous research, the whole evolvement process of the gorge slope is simulated by FLAC3D method using the bridge site slope of Mashuihe River on the freeway from Shanghai to Kunming as a typical case. The initial stress field of the slope is inversed considering the in-situ ground stress data and the evolvement process of the river physiognomy. The stress and displacement of key points in the slope are dynamically pursued. The results show that the outcomes of numerical simulation agree well with the state of nowadays slope. Along with the river cutting and eroding, the stress behind the river slope will release and adjust in-depth, the present stress field can provide boundary conditions for further simulative work and be the foundation of the feasibility evaluation of the slope rock mass engineering.
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      Post-office building landslide in Xingshan county is the slide of covering soils of Quaternary and strong weathering rockmass, which results from bending and topping deformation of the soft and steep rockmass caused by gravitational stresses. The prime deformation of the landslide happened in April 1994, and became worse in June. There are several transverse tension cracks with plumb dislocation in the ground. The longest one was 40m long and 3cm width. Some houses and theirs cement floor cracked. After the slide, some houses on the middle of landslide body were abandoned, anti-slide plies were used to control the landslide as an emergency measures. Heavy rain, domestic water seepage, and building load on the back are the essence inducement of its slide. After Three Gorges Reservoir restores water, the front of post-office building landslide will be immerged, and its stability will become further worse. The stability analysis with finite element method and block limit equilibrium method shows the deformable body will be instable and need treatment. Anti-sliding piles with surface drainage and revetment system have been advised to reinforce the landslide.
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      Anti-slide pile, which can be classified mainly into two categories: normal anti-slide pile and anchorage pile, is the most popular way to treat landslides in China. Presently, in the treatment of landslide disaster, the design parameters of anti-slide pile are depended mainly on experience or hand trail calculation. However, this has proved to be conservative and led to enormous waste. Based on the basic design theory of normal anti-slide pile and anchorage pile and the consideration of overall cost as objective function, an optimization model is built in the paper. Then, nonlinear optimization and genetic algorithm are applied to develop the anti-slide pile optimization design system, which optimizes the mainly design parameters and minimizes the cost finally. An appropriate landslide in the tenth bid section K215+440∼K215+594, which is also called JiangLin section in Yunan xianglin road, is adopted to test the system. The application results indicate that the optimization design can highly reduce the direct investment and bring notable economic benefit compared to the original project.
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      Based on the data of the west area in new Wushan, the landslide disaster spatial zoning is studied with Logistic regression model and Cluster method. The technical route is as follows. Firstly, two databases were established with Geographical Information System technique. One is influence factors database which contains landform, physiognomy, litho logical character, groundwater, geological structure conditions, etc. The other is happened landslide section database. Secondly, the experimental area was compartmentalized 14450 cells by 10m×10m. Logistic regression model was built when each cell was taken one sample. At last, the Cluster Q analysis was used to obtain each cell's probability. The zoning map was gotten with Cluster analysis result. The conclusion shows that applying the method has higher reliability, and it is worthy of being used.
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      The occurrence and the development mechanism of one small slide in the FuChang road at the Taihang Mountain is analyzed with the comprehensive exploration methods such as engineering geophysical prospecting and geological prospecting etc. It is brought forward that the small slide is a shallow layer crushed stone slide with the type of drawing - enlarging outside. The vertical prestressed anchor retaining earth wall is applied for safety correcting the slide with the economical and feasible correction principle. This method depends on the vertical prestressed force, pressed on the earth wall body which is made by the anchor in the foundation, to balance the sliding force of the slide mass. This method reaches the purpose of decreasing the masonry and the engineering price. The design thinking of the vertical prestressed anchor retaining earth wall is analyzed in details and the construction technology and technique essentials is introduced in this paper. The efficiency of the method is indicated by its well correction result. This technique can offer reference to the similar geological disaster correction.
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      Determining the key triggering factors is an important step for landslide stability assessment. Research on key triggering factor of landslides is needed for the estimation of slope stability. In this paper, GIS is used to study the features of landslides in Zhuhai city• The susceptibility of landslide triggering factors is analyzed by means of the slope certainty factors (CF for short). After certainty factors overlap, number interval used in forecasting landslide has been established. Statistic analysis shows that the model is reliable to explain most of the landslides in Zhuhai city• The results show that the presented method is useful to study spatial distribution and occurrence of landslides in the future and provides scientific information for landslide prevention• planning and control in Zhuhai city•
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      Baitupo slope at new county-site town of Badong in Three Gorges reservoir region is a consequent bedding rock mass slope, the cutting of yangtze river and gullies provided free faces for rock mass creep. For analyzing tectonic deformation feature of weak intercalated layers of the 3rd Member of Badong Formation in Baitupo slope, intercalated layers can be divided into consequent fracture cleavage type and intercalated fracture cleavage type from deformational degree by analyzing outcrop. Analyzed by X-ray diffraction(XRD),intercalated layers show that their protolyte is calcareous mudstone. Rock slab, scraping trace, shear joints and extension joints are thrusting which are formed by intercalated layer's shearing originated from buckle fold, the conjugate shear joint show that the maximum tectonic principal stress is approximately SN-direction. By analyzing scraping trace on bedding surface of oriented sample by scanning electron microscope, the mode of line type scraping traces' movement is stick slip formed by prophase thrusting shearing, the direction of linear scraping traces are consistent with thrusting scraping trace on the super face, the mode of arciform scraping traces' movement is creeping slip and their direction is in accord with bedding plane dip, which indicates deep-seated rock mass creeps along the surface of weak intercalated layer by gravity action during anaphase slope development.
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      To ascertain probability of regional rainfall-induced landslides in terms of volume, and to provide quantitative indicator for regional landslides risk prediction and assessment, 1158 landslides during the period from 1973 to 2002 in Jiangxi province are analyzed. The findings are as follows, (• ) In Jiangxi province; the years with high rate of landslides are 1998 and 2002, the months from May to October, especially June. (•) Among lithology stratum of Jiangxi, even all kinds of lithology, including metamorphite, magmatite, carbonatite, and clastic rock, the cumulative frequency-volume relationship is a straight line on a log-log scale: log 100 f = a log v + b (v ≥ v0).(Ž)According to research on landslide - rainfall relation, 6-days accumulative rainfall, 14-days effective rainfall (the coefficient is α =0.82), 3-days accumulative rainfall, and 9-days accumulative rainfall are the factors closely related to landslides in metamorphite, magmatite, carbonatite, and clastic rock respectively. (• ) Effective rainfall model is not fit to all the landslides, so first comparison between rain patterns is necessary. (• )Under all litho logic stratum, there is a linear relation between landslide over some volume and accordingly rainfall factor, that is, f = ax + b (when x ≥ x0, f = 1).(• ) while combing frequency-volume relation and frequency-rainfall relation, frequency of landslide with over volume can be obtained under certain rainfall condition. And meanwhile, after getting the knowledge of annual rainfall probability, annual probability of landslide with over volume can be estimated which can provide quantitative reference for regional landslides risk assessment in terms of volume.
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      It has a remarkable influence on the slope stability with the infiltration of rainfall and reservoir water to unsaturated soil zones, which can not only change the mechanical parameters of soils on the slip surface, but also promote the static and dynamic water pressure of the soil body, thus resulting in the instability of the slopes and landslides. But under different hydraulic conditions, the affect mechanism on the slope stability of the infiltration is different, so that the controlling factors are different. In the paper, an elasto-plastic incremental stiffness matrix for unsaturated soil is introduced and the program has been compiled based on the extension Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. Then associated with four underground water levels and corresponding negative pore-water pressure of different time, the influencing rules on the deformation and stability of unsaturated soil slope have been analyzed about the mechanical parameters of slip surface soils, the gradient of underground water levels and the location relationship between the levels and the slip surface, so that the controlling factors for stability of unsaturated soil slope can be ascertained.
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      The landslide always consists of a lot of weak intercalated layers; the distribution and seepage-stress coupled effect of weak intercalated layer are the key factors affecting the landslide stability. In order to predict the stability correctly and mitigate disaster maximally, a new type of seepage-stress coupled interface model based on Goodman joint was proposed, which is based on Biot's consolidation theory and interpenetration control method proposed by Desai. An elastic visco-plastic constitutive model was adopted to simulate creep behavior, and a relevant FE program was developed to analyze the Dayeping landslide with weak intercalated layers, whose stability is attached important to the construction of Linxihe hydropower station. The calculated groundwater free surface is consistent well with the in-situ testing data, and the displacements and stresses suggest that the landslide may slide along with the weak intercalated layer from the elevation of 230m to 370m, especially when the water table in the downstream falls suddenly. The results provide theoretical bases for landslide disaster forecast, prevention and construction decision of Linxihe hydropower station. The proposed interface model can predict the stability of landslide with weak intercalated layer correctly.
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      Wanzhou Middle School landslide is a kind of highly representative landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The landslide is mainly composed of gravel-silty clay, with the underlying layer of pebble sand. It is of great significance to study on the relationship between its stability and the reservoir water level. The numerical simulation of the seepage field is carried out with Geoslope-general finite-element analysis software during drawdown of reservoir water level. The results show that the more the matric suction is, the more advantageous landslide stability is. Moreover, there is strong permeable layer in the landslide Therefore, the landslide groundwater discharge soon, and the water level of the toe and top of the landslide is almost simultaneous dropped so that hydraulic gradient and seepage force are reduced. This will be conducive to the landslide stability. As the reservoir water level dropped, the landslide stability coefficient is depressed at first, and then elevated. The faster the speed of the reservoir water level is reduced, the lower the landslide stability coefficient is.
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      Based on detailed geological investigations and researches, engineering geology factors, engineering slope types, rock mass characteristic and kinds of typical destabilization patterns in Zipingpu water conservancy project of upriver Minjiang River have been systematically discussed in this paper. Leading factors which affect slope stability together with aim at the process of reinforcement treatment, 6 groups and 11 sub-groups are specifically divided in allusion to engineering slope types of geological structure, respectively. According to the study mentioned above, the developmental condition of definitive destabilizing failure models corresponds with slope types in the process of research. Therefore, the mechanism of deformation-failure pattern of the slopes in the engineering region has been concluded. It is the important theoretical gist for feedback analysis, formation mechanism, and optimum design of excavation slopes in engineering region, which is closed, related to safety of stabilization. It is also significant to reference typical destabilization and deformation/failure models to be provided for the similar deformation and failure model of engineering high slopes.
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      Rock mass is a kind of geological body with special structure which determines rock mass features and synthetically influenced by both internal and external dynamic geological activities. The structure is hierarchical according to the region scale and developing degree of preponderant structure surfaces. This thesis, taking Badong district which is located in the Three Gorges Reservoir as an example, studies rock mass structure and slope deformation features of main strata, It presents hierarchical structure of rock mass and structure transformations of rock mass in the process of sedimentation, tectonism and groundwater action. Based on the developing degree of laminations, joints and cleavages generated by sedimentation and tectonic movements, rock mass structure is categorized into layered structure, blocky structure and creaked structure. The deformation characteristics of surface slope are determined by the different structures of rock mass.
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      It has been accepted that rainfall and the reservoir water level fluctuation plays an important role in the stability of the reservoir bankside. However, at present, there has not been a suitable and simple method for the project application to calculate and appraise. Therefore, based on the Boussinesq's differential equation of unsteady-seepage and boundary condition, and Laplace's transform, the curvilinear equation of phreatic line in landslide mass is deduced under the rainfall and the reservoir water level fluctuation conditions, and a simplified formula which can be used in the project is gained by the polynomial fitting. Meanwhile, it holds together the transmission coefficient method to write programs about the bankside stability analysis in the paper. With the Er-Liban landslide of the three Gorges Reservoir area for the computation model, this paper uses the program to analyze the change rule and stability of the phreatic line under the condition of the reservoir water level fluctuation and rainfall.
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      This paper relies on the thought of block theory to establish appropriate parameter matrix and figure out its discrimination matrix in view of the fact that the block in face-contacted block structure has high intensity and stiffness, the friction face among blocks approximates a plane, the structural face runs through the block and structural instability is mostly due to shear slip of the block along the contact face. Vector analysis method is employed to identify the mobile block in face-contacted block structure. And as a further step, the paper probes into specific identification method for the key contact face in face-contacted block structure by means of virtual tangential “net slipping force” F. This lays a solid foundation for further exploration of face-contacted block structure.
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      Rainfall and the fluctuation of water level of reservoir often make the slope soil alternating between the state of saturated or unsaturated. Therefore, it is difficult to use the classic theory of soil mechanics to reveal the influence mechanisms of water on landslide. On the basis of Fredlund strength Theory of unsaturated soil, an ideal elasto-plastic constitutive model based on the extending Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was derived as well as the calculation expression of slope factor of safety. We also developed the slope stability numerical simulation methods based on unsaturated soil strength and constitutive model. The Factor of stability of the slope calculated by this method is higher than the one computed by the conventional method. This study supplies a new way to reveal the internal mechanisms of landslide distortion and stability prediction under water influence.
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      Maoping Landslide is a large ancient rock landslide in the region of Geheyan Reservoir of Qingjiang River. Since the filling of the reservoir in April 1993, the deformation of the landslide has become obvious day after day. Base on the deformation measurement data from field investigations and lab tests in 12 years, this paper probes into the deformation characteristics of the landslide and its induced mechanism and analyzes the landslide stability under various engineering conditions by using 3D finite element numerical simulation as well. The stability numerical calculation results show that the landslide is in a latency critical state. It is possible that the landslide might lose its stability and downslide wholly if it meets with intensive rainfall, sharp drop of the reservoir water level, rock fall or earthquake and other triggering factors. Therefore, it is necessary to study the deformation development trend of the landslide with the passage of time, so as to provide scientific evidences for predicting landslide stability and preventing and reducing landslide disasters.
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      In terms of geological structure and deformation characters, Yanbao landslide is a typical lateral rock spreading, and has an integrated progressive deformation process. It is predicted that when the reservoir water level rises to 156m and to 175m, and quick down from 175m to 145m in reservoir operation, Yanbao landslide will occur remarkable deformation and leads to rock blocks sliding and toppling. When water level at 156m, the landslide surge is 4• 10m, which will affect navigation of adjacent area of Changjiang water way.
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      Landslide disaster in the new county seat of Badong is serious in the Three Gorges reservoir area. Material composition and historical environment before the occurrence of landslides are recovered and nine evaluation indexes are selected, including lithology, water level and so on. By perfecting the division method of irregular unit, the study area is divided into slope evaluation units, which have more tangible geological significance. Each influence map layer is stacked with distribution map of slope evaluation units to obtain the calculation units and the information calculation method of slope evaluation unit is proposed. The influence zone of Yangtze River and residential area are relevant to the failure of landslide. 16.4% of the new county seat of Badong belongs to high-risk area, and 45.2% percent belongs to differential high-risk area.
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      The parameters of the rock and soils with spatial variation in the slope is considered in the paper and treated as random field. The random field is spatially scattered into random field meshes, then the means, the variance of the parameters in each elements and the covariance between parameters in different elements are computed with a locally averaging method. The Interaction between the underground water and the rock and soils in the slope is described with the Biot Consolidation equations. The coupled process of the solid and fluid interaction is simulated with stochastic finite element method, which computes the means, the variances and the covariance of the stress, the deformation and the pore pressure in the slope. The limit state function of the elements in the potential sliding surface is proposed basing on the Mohr-Coulomb yielding criterion. Since the potential sliding surface consists of many elements, its limit state function is treated as the sum of the limit state functions of the elements it crossing through. Then, the reliability index and the corresponding failure probability of the potential sliding surface are computed basing one the theory of reliability. A highway slope is taken as case study, where the reliability index and the corresponding failure probability are computed in both case of coupled and uncoupled process between the underground water and the soils in the slope with random parameters. Computed results prove that failure probability is higher in the coupled case, which is in coincidence with the facts in geotechnical engineering.
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      Case-based reasoning technique is one of the artificial intelligence methods developed recently. This paper studies the retrieval model of slope stability evaluation system based on Case-based reasoning. Aimed at existent problem of K-Nearest Neighbor strategy (KNN), dynamic cluster method is used to organize index for slope cases, and the cases are classified into different typical sub-base cases according to property or failure style of slope, which could contract case retrieval space and reducing retrieval time. Through analyzing the influence degree on slope stability evaluation result of each factor and its historic data, genetic algorithm combined KNN is adopted to optimize weight, and a rather objective weight value could be denoted for each attribute into increase quality. Practical engineering slopes are applied to test the retrieval model system. And the results show that cluster analysis method could raise retrieval efficiency, and the optimizing calculation by genetic algorithm combined KNN for weight is objective, effective, and simple. And this retrieving model could raise retrieval efficiency and accuracy of slope case stability evaluation system.
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      Orthogonal design was adopted to analyze the sensitivity of influencing factors of slope stability in this paper. Based on the analysis of environmental engineering geology of the slope, the main influencing factors and their value ranges were determined. Then appropriate orthogonal table was selected to determine the calculating scheme. Calculating method of slope stability was used to calculate the slope stability. According to the variance analysis of calculation results of influencing factors, significant degree and sensitive degree of each influence factor was determined. Taken Xirangpo, the bedding bank rock slope in new-built area of Badong in the Three Gorges reservoir area as an example, multi-factor sensitivity analysis was carried out based on orthogonal design, including the five important influencing factors, the volume weight γ, cohesion c of potential sliding zone, internal friction angle φ, earthquake acceleration ah and the reservoir level H. Results show that sensitive degree of each influencing factor of the four layers of sliding zones is different. However, earthquake acceleration and internal friction angle are always the main influencing factors of the slope stability.
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      Based on influencing factors of landslide speed, three parameters, respectively, groundwater height coefficient, reduced rate of friction angle and reduced rate of cohesion, are selected as sub-sequences and the corresponding maximal speed of landslide as primary-sequences of the sensitivity and correlation analysis. Secant model is employed to analyze the sensitivity of influencing factors. This model regards initiation and derivative as transforming method of basic data, and sensitive degrees as estimating indexes of sensitive factors. Grey correlation model is used to analyze correlativity of influencing factors. This model takes top-difference for transforming method of basic data, and correlative degrees as estimating indexes of influencing factors. Both models take Xintan landslide as an example. It is concluded that the reduced rate of friction angle is the most sensitive influencing factor and the reduced rate of cohesion is the most correlative influencing factor.
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      The strength reduction method is the common method to solve the stability of slopes when using the numerical simulation technique. It is confirmed that this method can be used to solve the homogeneous soil and rock slopes. Also, some scholars have done researches on the adaptation of this method to solve stability of slopes which are subject to steady seepage, however the calculation examples are very special that is to say the downstream water level is lower than the bottom of slopes. Therefore this kind of research loses universality. In addition, some scholars hold that this method can not be adopted to deal with the stability analysis when slopes concern inhomogeneous soil layers. In order to analyze the adaptation of strength reduction method, using FLAC (Fast Lagrang in Analysis of Continua), we can research on the adaptation of strength reduction method subjected to steady seepage, and the adaptation of strength reduction method subjected to inhomogeneous soil slopes as well. We analyze the results which are elicited by different methods and contrast the limit equilibrium method and the strength reduction method. We conclude that the strength reduction method can be adapted to solve slope stability considering different conditions mentioned above.
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      Landslide thrust was calculated by limit equilibrium method and its distribution is discussed with strength reduction FEM in this paper. The equivalence has been validated on two kinds of different water pressure calculation, “Code Method” and “Pan Jia-zheng Method” of limit equilibrium methods, at the same time the reason of the error of “Simplified Pan Jia-zheng Method” is presented. A case of project of Three Gorges Reservoir Area shows that the distribution forms of landslide thrust on support structures are trapeziums by strength reduction FEM, and they would vary with the change of the shear strength parameters of sliding mass. When friction coefficient of sliding mass is increased with increasing of the contents of broken stone, the distribution form of landslide thrust would be changed from trapeziform to parabola. When cohesion of sliding mass is increased with increasing of the content of clayey soil, the distribution form of landslide thrust would be changed from trapeziform to triangular. The Landslide thrust would decrease and its barycenter would be down when friction coefficient and cohesion of sliding mass increase.
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      The studies show that the ground water in the slope plays a decisive role in its stability. The engineering examples of the Three Gorges reservoir region indicates that periodical fluctuations of reservoir water level that change the environment and condition of the intrinsic interaction water and rock, result in the deformation and failure of reservoir slopes and landslides, and drawdown of the water level is the major factor inducing the landslides at the reservoir bank. This paper takes Tangjiao village landslide in Wanzhou district in Chongqing Municipality for example, based on two longitudinal profiles of the landslide and the dynamic deformation data monitored by six borehole Landslide Displacement Monitoring Systems, the development trend and sliding nature of the landslide was identified and the deformation and failure mechanism of the landslide and its influence factor, i.e. the drawdown of reservoir water level was researched and discussed. These synthetic studies show that the drawdown of reservoir water level caused the distinct displacement of Tangjiao village landslides, and this old landslide's coming into creeping stage. Furthermore, the landslide influenced by other unfavorable factors is likely to trigger or accelerate the revival of the landslide.
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      In static slope stability analysis, minimum factors of safety and critical slip surfaces are critical issues to be determined. In seismic slope stability analysis, displacement-based analysis has tremendous advantages over load based analysis. In order to obtain the failure mechanism with an acceptable stress field within the sliding mass, a new procedure is recently developed, which is based on the limit equilibrium method of slope stability analysis within the pseudo-static analysis framework. The procedure uses stress acceptability as prerequisite to derive a system of nonlinear equations to determine the slip surface along with the corresponding critical acceleration. The procedure is extensively validated using elastic perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb model through Imperial College Finite Element Program. If fully associated condition is adopted, good agreements are achieved between current procedure and finite element analysis, in terms of the critical acceleration and the critical slip surface.
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      Recently, severe ruptured cracks have occurred in the high slope at the Tonglushan Ancient Copper Mine, which is the key cultural relics site under the state protection. The study on the genesis of the cracks is quite important for the protection of the site of the Mine. According to the site investigation, factors affecting the deformation and rupture of the high slope of the mine had (were) analyzed in details. As a result, the mining activity is (was) considered as the main factor. Moreover, true three-dimensional engineering geological numerical model has been established. Based on a lot of model trial calculation and comprehensive analysis, five mining and excavation conditions are designed, and reasonable deformation rupture criterion is determined as well. In addition, three-dimensional non-linear finite difference method is carried out to conduct the calculation. The results are discussed based on the rupture criteria, with the aim of finding out the position of the cracks; therefore, the final mining condition leading to the deformation can be obtained. Finally, the rational analysis and evaluation on the genesis of the cracks of high slope are proposed based on the above qualitative and quantitative analysis conclusions.
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      Using the fiber spacing theories, the paper analyzed the strengthening mechanism of plant root and set up a model to predict the contribution of root to the shear strength of composite soil, which had the same style as the contribution of internal steel in reinforced concrete to shear reinforcement. The paper put forward that, the contribution of root to the shear strength of composite soil was mainly decided by the average tensile strength, direction of root, the area ratio of root or average spacing of root, and analyzed main impact factors, and finally verified the strengthening model of plant root in an instance project.
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      Two transfer factor methods, based on over-loading method and strength reserve method which are commonly applied to evaluate rock landslide stability, are validated through analyzing the results of between limit equilibrium and finite element method by many people. In this paper, the reliability of the two methods is validated through rock similar material modeling test on the background of Zhao Shuling landslide of Badong in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Research result shows that the stability factor values calculated with these two methods are lower comparing with modeling test, and the value from over-loading method is preferable, with the assumption that there is tensile stress among the blocks accords with failure feature of landslide model, and the value from strength reserve method is safe as well.
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      Xietan landslide is located in Zigui County, Hubei Province, China. It is an age-old landslide at the northern bank of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas. The landslide is mainly composed of sliding mass, slip band and bedrock. Considering that the age-old landslide may reactivate due to the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, it is necessary to evaluate the stability of the age-old landslide. Numerical simulation results by the shear strength reduction method have shown that with the increase of the shear strength reduction factor, elements of the slip band yield gradually to form a connected plastic zone, which provides a slip path or slip surface for reactivation of the age-old landslide. In view of the plastic resistance of the soils, formation of the connected plastic zone does unnecessarily indicate that the age-old landslide is about to fail. Other auxiliary criterion is necessary to predict whether the landslide is in a critical state. Here, incremental percent of the horizontal displacement of the slip band node at the outcrop, which is changeable with increase of the shear strength reduction factor, is regarded as an auxiliary condition to distinguish the critical state of the landslide. With the above idea, stability of the age-old landslide has been evaluated for the initial and the long term reservoir water level conditions. Factors of safety of the numerical simulations have been compared with that of the limit equilibrium method, which indicates that the method used in the paper for evaluating stability of the age-old landslide is feasible. Because numerical method has more advantages over the limit equilibrium method, the idea for evaluating stability of the landslide can be applied to three-dimensional or more complicated landslides further.
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      The water level will periodically fluctuate between 145 and 175m since normal water level storage in Three Gorges Reservoir• it is significant to study the influence of water level fluctuation on the bank landslide stability. Use finite element method and water seepage fields to simulate with the water level fluctuation between 145 and 175m. The transient pore water pressures are used for limit equilibrium analyses of landslides considering the effects of suction on shear strength of unsaturated soils. It is discussed that the bank landslide stability in impounding and drawdown of Three Gorges Reservoir water level. The result shows that the stability coefficient increases gradually in general along with reservoir water level rising and the stability coefficient decreases gradually in general along with drawdown of reservoir water level. The stability coefficient with reservoir water level rising from 145m to 175m is greater than that with reservoir water level falling from 175m to 145m, and it will provide scientific basis for the treatment of landslide in Three Gorges reservoir.
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      The abutments of Yujianhe Arch Dam have hidden double to their safety because there is a presence of many faults joints and weak seams in the rock mass. After establishing a three-dimensional model, we use Vector Algebra method to calculate the block stability coefficient before and after concrete presser foot handling. The results show that in normal condition, the stability coefficient raise from 2.45 to 2.70 after treatment; in checking condition, the stability coefficient raise from 2.09 to 2.30. But security reserves still remain low, so some monitor measures about right dam abutment may be introduced during later reservoir construction and operation process to ensure the project's safety.
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      Yesanguan tunnel is a key project of the whole Yiwan railway. This paper is based on field investigation and test analysis, firstly researches karst distributing rule of this zone, and studies grade separation of karst water bursting hazard of this tunnel construction through analyzing information. Then analytical methods are discussed. Finally the risky zone and risky grade of karst water bursting hazard of the construction are confirmd through analyzing specific geological and hydrogeological conditions of Yesanguan tunnel. All this result provides the basis for the definition of key prevention sectors of tunnel construction.
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      The special location of Dayan tang landslide makes it affected by the engineering construction more severely. Some horizontal drainage tunnels are dug beneath the slip belt to enhance the stability and prevent the failure of the landslide during the construction period. The stability of the landslide will be impacted by the heavy foggy rain formed by flood discharge when the hydro project begins operation. A secondary improvement has been done for FLAC program to simulate the infiltration and a three dimensional analysis has been accomplished coupled the soil mechanism with infiltration of rainfall. Conclusions are obtained as follows: firstly, the saturation time of the landslide caused by foggy rain is 1∼2 days. Secondly, the accumulation of the over pore pressure in the slip belt is delayed or mitigated for the existence of the drainage tunnels underground and the gravel clay on the surface. Finally, the stability factor is decreased more than 20% and the main broken area takes place at the front and middle part during the foggy rain period.
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      Combined engineering practice, based on the instability phenomenon investigation of the bedding rock high slope occurring during the excavation and construction process along an expressway, the theoretic formula for calculating the excavation height and instability length of the bedding rock slope has been deduced. And according to the field actual complicated geometry conditions of slope, the corresponding modified calculation method is given. During the field checking examples, each calculation parameter is modified in the light of the practical situation of each type, then calculating the safety factor. By the aid of the examples verification, the calculation results coincide with the field investigation situation well. It is demonstrated that the instability length of the bedding rock high slope calculated by this theory is reasonable.
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      Landslide is one of the most serious geological hazards. Landslide assessment, especially in slope field, is very important and significant for appropriate human geological environment protection and rational exploitation. By means of the theory of Information and Artificial Neural Network, the basic flow chart of Information-ANN Model for landslide hazard spatial assessment is put forward. Some key technical problems are discussed, such as single factor information calculating, neural study sample choice, and network model building and so on. Applying Information-ANN Model and GIS technology, the landslide hazard susceptibility assessment of Anlesi paleo-landslide in Wanzou city of three-gorge reservoir is carried out. The landslide hazard prediction map is achieved. By comparing with the site investigation and some other models, Information-ANN Model is proved to be an effective mathematics model for landslide spatial assessment. At last, the existing question is put forward in this paper.
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      By means of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the quantitative disaster vulnerability assessment to The Three Gorges Reservoir Area has been made by selecting a series of factors, such as population density, GDP density and so on. Fuzzy method is significant to evaluate disaster vulnerability because the factors are fuzzy in forming disaster vulnerability. The vulnerability degrees have been divided into four grades, and the result shows a high degree of geological disaster vulnerability in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. In the areas with high vulnerability, methods as intensifying consciousness to prevent hazards, modulating population structure and increasing bankroll for decreasing disaster should be used in order to reduce disaster vulnerability of the local area.
  • Track 4. Foundation Treatment and Foundation Engineering

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      The settlement calculation of soft-soil subgrade is one of the most important problems in the filed of Geotechnical Engineering. Because of the uncertain factors about preferences and outside conditions in settlement calculation, especially, in settlement analysis for the over deep silt ground, if we adopt traditional calculation method, the precision of results will be not high. The precision of the prediction method based on the observed settlement data will be higher. Nevertheless, different methods in this class have different advantages and applicability. So, proper settlement prediction method should be chosen for each case according to the actual conditions. The grey system theory could be used to deal with the problems of the systems with incomplete information, and there are not any special requirements for the data. According to the grey system theory, grey Verhulst prediction model is established based on the settlement observation data of Lingni Seawall in Wenzhou city. At the same time, one corresponding computer procedure is compiled by MATLAB language to predict the settlement of the seawall. Compared the predictive results by grey Verhulst model with the results by hyperbola method, the analysis shows that, the precision of grey Verhulst model is higher, the relative error is smaller than hyperbola method's. Grey Verhulst prediction is one of the effective and feasible methods in settlement forecasting of soft-soil subgrade.
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      According to the grey system theory, which was pioneered by Chinese professor Deng Julong in 1982, the main theory and the building process of the GM (1, 1) model were introduced in this paper. Based on the long-term monitoring data of the 2nd Guangzhou western ring motorway project, the GM (1, 1) model was build for the forecasting of the subgrade settlements with the help of the computer program MATLAB. By comparing the forecasting results of the GM (1, 1) model with the ones gotten by the hyperbola method, it could be found that the forecasting accuracy of the GM (1, 1) model could be kept in a high level and its applicability is much wider than the hyperbola method. It could be considered that the GM (1, 1) model is an effective settlement forecasting method.
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      Based on the static load tests and stress tests results of two cases in Karst area, the bearing behavior of piles were analyzed and compared in this paper, caves in the base of piles not only affect the base resistances, but also affect the frictions of piles. The finite element method was applied to analyze the influence of rocks in the base of piles on bearing capacities of piles, according to the calculated results; the modulus of rocks affects the bearing capacities greatly, bearing capacities increase with the modulus of rocks increasing.
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      Due to the unreasonable dewatering scheme, the tunnel excavation was delayed for more than one year. In order to solve this problem, some pumping experiments were made. Moreover, the law of pumping rate and ground - water level reduces with pumping time- was summarized. On the basis of Tai-Si theory, dewatering calculated model was set up and the method of parameters settlement was advanced. In this case, the primary dewatering plan was revised and was very effective. Besides, the law of hydraulic jump with pumping time in various pumping rate was summarized and the reason was analyzed, which showed that the pumping rate was the main factor if the regional hydro geological condition and structure of wells are identical.
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      Prestress drill-grouted diaphragm wall, which mainly based on the mechanism of Soil Mixing Wall (SMW) and prestressing technique, is presented. It is grouted the drill-hole with discard drilling slurry, cement and admixture fly ash at a fixed rate. After grouting, insert shaped-steel in it and form the mixing wall, then choose the prestressed anchor or bolting support according to the condition of soil and foundation pit structure. The design theory of m method is provided to calculate the earth pressure, displacement and bending moment of the wall. Combined the unconfined compressive strength test of cement-soil, the bracing design of foundation pit is presented. With the successful application in the foundation treatment in Wuhan, China, the practicality and use for reference of this technique and monitoring data of the wall prove that it could be used in the similar engineering owing to such characteristics as high strength, low cost, environment protection and so on.
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      Complicated as the bearing mechanism of super-long single piles is, it can guide the implementation of construction plans if pre-analyzed. This paper analyzes the vertical load transfer mechanism of super long single piles with 3D FEM, where the soil mass constitutive model is simulated with D-P Model, the concrete simulated with Linear Elasticity Model and the pile-soil interface simulated with contacting elements. It is revealed that super-long piles are friction piles and the bearing capacity should be controlled by the pile settlement.
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      The article mainly studies the stress distribution of Hardfill dams' foundation and deduces the analytical solution of foundation stress. The distribution curve of foundation pressure is exported accurately with Finite Element Software, and then fitted exactly as a quadratic parabolic equation, whose coefficients' variation regularity and range are represented in tables for considering the variations of dam materials and bedrocks. The parabolic foundation pressure is loaded on the foundation to replace the effects of dam, and then the additional stress distribution regularity and analytical solution are deduced. The study aims at researching the stress solution of 100m high dam, and then extends it to the situation of arbitrary height. For additional stresses in foundation under quadratic parabolic loading, it can be calculated by utilizing the analytical solution.
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      In the article, the bearing capacity and load transfer mechanism of super-long bored pile with large length∕diameter ratio in soft soil are discussed, based on the static loading tests and axial force tests on the peculiar super-long bored piles in Wenzhou World Trade Center, where the length∕diameter ratio is as large as 109.1. The study gains the following conclusions. a) The load-settlement curves are changing slowly and the ultimate load should be established according to the pile tip settlement. b) The distribution of lateral friction resistance looks like ‘R’ shape; pile-soil relative displacement decreases with the increase of pile depth; end-bearing resistance become working when the load exceeds or comes to the designed load, this indicates that lateral friction resistance and end-bearing resistance play asynchronously. c) In the upper part of pile, load transfer slowly because of the existence of upper soft soil. d) Under the designed load, the bearing capacity of the deep part of pile doesn't be exerted fully. In this condition, the pile can be treated as friction pile. This also indicates that super-long bored pile has the effective length which means length∕diameter ratio cannot be too large, that must be taken into consideration during design process. These results are important to the theoretical research and technical application of large length/diameter ratio pile embedded in deep soft soil.
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      Subway line deformation must be restricted to insure the safety during construction of heat pipe line over existing subway. Deformation analysis is an important content of monitoring the tunnel structure. The current understanding of the main tunnel deformation is Concentrated on the horizontal structure s, however, vertical deformation of the tunnel should be much more fragile. To study the affect of the construction of the heat pipe line on the tunnels of subway line 10, a large number of settlement points are placed on the tunnels surfaces. Through monitoring and analyzing the settlement and deformation of tunnels points following the construction and setting up monitoring and control network according to national standard, the affects of the heat pipe line construction is analyzed in details on the basis of rational design of deformation monitoring programs. The monitored results indicate that the construction of heat pipe line has a great influence on the tunnels deformation, settlement rate and cumulative settlement quantity. At last, modified grey model is proposed to predict the settlement quantity with credible results in this paper.
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      Piezocone penetration test (CPTU) is a new technique of in-site testing for soils, and it is used widely in the engineering investigation and soil testing today. Soil strata can be identified according as classifying diagram from CPTU. But, because the relation between CPTU parameters and depth is obviously nonlinear, the method to identify soil strata not only takes time and also brings forth biggish error. In this paper the relation between CPTU parameters and soil types and strata is analyzed, the structure of BP Neural network is designed and the application program is programmed with MATLAB language. The application results of two test segments show that BP neutral network can identify the mud and muddy soil, sand and clay and the identify result is trusty. This research accomplishes identifying soil strata automation, supplies a new way to deal with the CPTU datum and has actual significance in promoting efficiency and precision of CPTU data processing. It will take important function in CPTU data processing automation in the future
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      The height of cushion has played a key role in bearing capacity of composite ground with cement-soil pile, so the selection of the cushion height has become a key factor in composite foundation design. Concentrating on the silty soil in Zhuhai, four kinds static load tests on cushion height of cement-soil piles composite foundation is carried out. Through the comparative analysis on the test data, the reasonable cushion height of cement-soil pile composite foundation is suggested, the load transfer mechanism of cement-soil pile composite foundation is obtained, and many factors should be taken into consideration in designing the cushion height. The results provide a valuable reference for the design of cement-soil piles composite foundation in the Zhujiang triangle district.
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      Based on Biot consolidation theory of saturated soil, the behavior of a stratified saturated soil foundation during dynamic consolidation was analyzed using finite element analysis software - ADINA. The double linear elastic-plasticity constitutive model and the simplified load model were considered in the project. The deformation of soil skeleton and the pore water pressure were treated as the coupling variables. The procedure of single-point and single-time impacting was simulated. The dynamic response analysis was provided with the distribution of the displacement, stress and excess pore water pressure of the system in time domain. The results of calculation show that a deep crater is formed on the surface subjected to load, however slightly the surface surrounding the crater rises. The peak stress, peak deformation and peak pore water pressure attenuate with the increase of depth, and delay too for the above first two variables. The stress, deformation and pore water pressure also attenuate with the increase of radial distance to the impact center, and the attenuations are very sharp. The consistency between the computation results and the other research data is obtained. The research implies Adina is an effective means in numerical simulation of saturated soil foundation improvement by dynamic consolidation.
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      Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been adopted as a technique to monitor the structure performance to detect damage in bridges. Fatigue analysis is an important consideration for evaluating the health of the bridges. To estimate the remaining fatigue life more accurately, a refined evaluation load procedure is desirable. In this paper, we propose a data processing program (DPP) and a dynamic analysis program (DAG) into SHM to understand the performance of the bridges and establish fatigue life of the girders and the decks. DPP is implemented in Lab View with 6 functions: Average, Temperature Shift Elimination, FFT, Filters, Data Extraction, and Data File Splitter functions. The DAG program uses the harmonic method to analyze the effect of girders due to trucks moving across a bridge. This allows utilization of the output of DAG for input in the fatigue analysis to estimate the fatigue life. The validity of this system has been successfully demonstrated in the field monitoring of the Lindquist Bridge in Canada. However, it should be noted that complex environmental factors make damage detection of bridges a very challenging proposition.
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      Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sheet pile offered great potential for waterfront structural applications due to their excellent corrosion resistance and high strength weight ratio. Numerical analysis method was employed to calculate and analyze the deflection of FRP composite sheet piles. Different conditions were considered, such as flexural rigidity of the pile, rigidity of the anchor, position of the anchor, friction angle δ and surcharge on the surface of the backfill etc, and deflection properties were obtained. The results showed that the increase ratio of the maximum deflection was evident when the flexural rigidity of the pile EI was rather smaller, and the large anchor rigidity can reduce the deflection of sheet piles. With the increase of the friction angle δ, horizontal displacement decreased. When the angle of friction δ was larger, the variation ratio of deflection was smaller. The deflection had linearly proportional increase with the increase of the surcharge, and the increase ratio was nearly 2mm∕kPa. For FRP composite sheet pilings, the deflection-based design method should be adopted.
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      High strain dynamic load testing method based on stress wave theory has less expense and many other excellent attributes: providing much information such as single pile bearing capacity, pile structure integrity, the ultimate bearing capacity and the soil resistance distribution. This paper presents a new method to analyze the vertical load bearing performance of pile based on high strain dynamic load testing method. A forward and backward analytical model and its arithmetic used to solve the matter of hammer-pile-soil impulse response based on the theory of one-dimensional wave and continuous pole is put forward. In combining optimization with forward and backward analysis method, a program is developed not only to simulate the in-situ curves of high strain dynamic load testing and static load tests, but also to analyze the soil mechanical parameters around the pile by using backward analysis method with optimization technique utilizing measured high strain dynamic load testing information. This technique has been verified in large numbers of practical engineering projects with satisfactory results.
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      Geo-synthetics reinforced and sand wick embankments have been regarded as an effective alternative, which adopted worldwide to solve the problem appeared in the construction of embankments on soft soils. At present, the safety factors are improved little with circular failure analysis method stated in the criterion for preventing deep-seated slope failure of reinforced embankments, which not agree with the actual effects. Numerical methods have been increasingly used for analyzing slope stability including the computation of its factor of safety. Strength Reduction FEM was adopted in this study for analyzing the factor of safety of reinforced embankments, and the influence of some parameters, namely friction angle of mat, reinforcement layer, coefficient and interface and geo-synthetic stiffness, is also analyzed. The conclusions are obtained.
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      Geological defects always exist in natural foundation more or less. The foundation treatment is a significant component in dam construction. Based on three-dimension finite element method (FEM), the failure process of dam foundation with weak interlayer is studied with overload method and strength reduction method respectively, the quantitative results of the foundation safety are gotten by comparing with before and after foundation treatment to show the treatment effect. Comparing the treatment effect of each design schemes, the optimum design scheme is obtained. The calculation results show that the quantitative results of the foundation safety can be computed by the finite element method, so the approach in question is proved to have obvious advantages.
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      Determining total settlement process of the foundation is important to highway engineering. Prediction models for this total settlement process are studied in details. Firstly, the shape of total settlement process curve is studied directly based on one-dimension soil consolidation theory. Mathematical analysis of traditional settlement models, namely Gompertz model and Logistic model, are conducted. Secondly, the mathematical deficiencies of the above two traditional models are pointed out in terms of inflect point. Weibull model is proposed to describe the total settlement process of highway foundation. This proposed model overcomes the deficiencies of the above two traditional models, and exponential model is one of its degraded expressions. It can predict the total settlement processes of both the instantaneous load and the ramp load conditions. Finally, good agreements are obtained between Weibull model simulations and field investigations
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      Segmental retaining wall (SRWs) (primarily with precast concrete blocks facing) reinforced by geogrids or geotextiles were in a period of enormous growth. A vertical model retaining wall, 3m high and 5m long, was constructed by reinforcing the backfill with two sides' vertical anchored blocks. The cohesionless earth backfill, available at the site of construction, was reinforced by metallic bars reinforcement that were attached to the wall face blocks. The reinforcing layers were instrumented with strain gauges, tensile geogrid load transducers and horizontal displacement sensors. In addition, total soil pressure transducers were installed inside the structure to monitor the internal state of stress of the reinforced wall. The aim of the research was to better understand the behavior of reinforced structures of two sides' vertical anchored block backfill reinforced retaining wall. In particular, the development of slip surfaces and the tensile forces acting in the reinforcements were investigated. By this analysis it was possible to assess current design approaches and related safety factors in terms of long-term tensile failure, pull out, direct sliding or compound failures. And then use this theory to design and construct a real high road dyke for national defenses highway from Yuanan to Dangyang in China.
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      For the natural structural soft soil, the destabilization and loading may damage its structure, which is called structure damage. The structure damage will lead to the degradation of strength, the increment of compressibility and the multiplication of soft foundation settlement. But the compressibility parameters, obtained from the desk compression tests, can not reflect the deformation characters of the preloading and draining soil very well; therefore, the calculated settlement is not usually consistent with the practical settlement. In order to set the desirable method to determine the compressibility parameters of soil layer, based on analysis of the deformation characters and deformation caused by structure damage, this paper proposed a calculation parameter modification method for calculating settlement in the preloading and drainage of structural soft soil. Based on filling sea project in west cannels of Shenzhen, a compression index and compression modulus inquired into from the measuring settlement value were used for modifying parameters of compression index and compression modulus obtained by desk test, so the reliability of the settlement calculation could be increased and the method introduced in this paper has some reference significance for the engineering practice.
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      The classification of rock mass quality is of great significance in the engineering construction. On the basis that structural planes present the self-similar feature, this paper applied the spatial analysis function of GIS to analyze the spatial data obtained from two rock mass in Badong group of a slope in Three Gorges Reservoir region, calculated the single fractal dimension and obtained the multifractal spectrum, which were then applied to evaluate the rock mass quality. The steps of calculating the multifracal of structural plane in GIS platform were described, and the relationship of a serial of multifractal parameters with complexity, in homogeneity and local singularity of structural plane in rock mass was analyzed. The results of this study indicate that single fractal dimension can explain the integrity of rock mass and replace RQD to classify quantitatively rock mass quality; however, multifractal spectrum can reveal more effectively the complexity and local singularity in the distribution of structural plane in rock mass, and present more detailed and additional information for the classification of rock mass quality, and therefore can provide valuable reference for utilizing reasonably engineering rock mass and evaluate the stability of the rock mass, and improve the development of quantitative evaluation of rock mass quality.
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      The subway project crossing Beijing-Zhuhai expressway employed pipe-roof to push a box-culvert of the largest cross-section in Asia at present into soft clay stratum located in Zhengzhou. The main issue considered both in the design and construction is the control of the stratum displacement to keep the safety of the expressway. Based on the in-situ measured data, the numerical simulation of the stratum displacement during the whole construction process is studied systematically by using FLAC 3-D computer program. By combing the analysis and comparison of the site measured results and numerical stimulation results, the stratum displacement patterns are summarized, and they have guiding significance for the design and construction in the future.
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      The article was based on the supporting technique in small cross-section roadway excavation under complicated geologic condition. Through the application of numerical modeling software to primary design for suspension roof support parameter in coal road, and precede the industrial test as it, achieved bolting and shotcreting with wire mesh support technique for small cross-section roadway excavation under complex geologic condition.
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      Engineering geological features for Powerhouse foundation of Guangzhao Hydropower Station is weak, which can not satisfy for the requirement of foundation design and deformation. Reinforcement treatment is performed. Wave velocity and deformation modulus of Powerhouse foundation rock is tested, and the relationship between them is established. The consolidate grouting and supplementary grouting is done with workplace weak rock foundation. The evaluation on grouting effect is by using the relationship of wave velocity and deformation modulus. The results show that there is a good effect on the P1 fracture zone, No. 5 karst conduit and T1Yn4 clayed dolomite after the grouting treatment, especially for the rock mass which has a weaker characteristic under the natural condition. But for the rock mass which has good mechanics strength, the improvement effect is not very good. The deformation modulus has reached all design requirements.
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      Evaluating the bearing capacity of a surface footing resting on a rock mass is a complex problem. This may be attributed to the fact that rock masses are discontinuous, inhomogeneous and anisotropic media. As a traditional method, the rock masses are considered as equivalent homogenous and isotropic continuum. And the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation rock mass is calculated with limit equilibrium theory. However, this method can't represent the real mechanical behaviors of foundation rock masses. In practices, it is needed that values of ultimate bearing capacity of foundation rock masses should be more precise. Then, a Distinct Element Method is adopted to research the stress-displacement characteristics of strip footings on horizontal and vertical layered rock masses. The numerical results of ultimate bearing capacity are discussed. And the effects of the terrane thickness on the ultimate bearing capacity are analyzed. The results show that, for isotropic foundation rock masses, the numerical result of ultimate bearing capacity with the distinct element method is approximate to the mean value of its limit equilibrium upper and lower bounds; the ultimate bearing capacity of horizontal layered foundation rock masses are lightly affected by terrane thickness, and shear failure mainly appear in foundation rock masses; but the ultimate bearing capacity of vertical layered foundation rock masses are affected strongly by terrane thickness, and with the terrane thickness reducing, the failure model of foundation rock mass is gradually changed from shear failure to uniaxial compression failure.
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      The equal time-interval original data is the precondition of the grey model establishment. As the acquired data in the practical using is usually unequal time-interval, there are some errors in the predicting results. On the basis of the grey model GM (1, 1), a new grey prediction model with time-dependent parameters is established. The parameters of model, which can be expressed in polynomial expression, are assumed to be continuous functions of time. The undetermined coefficients of polynomial expression can be solved by the principle of least square method based on the previous information. In the model, both time-varying property and the correcting effect of the forgetting factor are considered, so the prediction error is smaller. The improved model is applied to predict the foundation settlement of Qingshan power plant chimney in Wuhan. The predicted value by the model is compared with those by measuring and three-point method, the result shows that the value derived from three-point method is slight more than the actual settlement, and the value derived from improved GM(1, 1) model is close to that from measuring, the predicted error is less than 2%. The example showed that the short-term predicted value from the model is quite exact and the predicted ultimate settlement value can be used as reference for the engineer. Based on the improved GM (1, 1) model, the foundation settlement is predicted from the observed data of the previous 468 days. The result shows that the predicted value from the model is very close to that from the three years observation.
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      The anti-sliding pile is a retaining structure most widely used in slope protection and treatment, which plays an important role in landslide protection in various countries of the world. The traditional analysis method on anti-sliding pile does not consider the mutual coupling function between pile and soil, and adopts the mono-parameter method. As a result, the deflection and angle of the anti-sliding pile in the ground, the maximum bending moment of pile body and its position and so on cannot simultaneously conform to the actually-measured values. The new anti-sliding pile computation method which applies the composite stiffness principle with bi-parameter method can adjust the two parameters with consideration of pile pile-soil interaction so that reasonable and reliable anti-sliding pile body displacement and internal force can be obtained. The finite difference method is used to compile a general computation program for pile body displacement and internal force under different pile foundation conditions by the composite stiffness principle with bi-parameter method. Examples from engineering show that this new computation method can increase the potential of anti-sliding piles and make the structural design of anti-sliding pile to be more economical.
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      Surface wave prospecting technology is a new method in the engineering groundwork survey. This paper studies the surface wave prospecting technology to solve the boundaries between pond sludge and artificial fill-soil (rock) and the imbedding depth of artificial fill-soil (rock). The results show that geological drilling and other data can compensate the shortcomings of the single transient surface wave method used and improve the ability to recognize the geophysical anomaly. The result of surface wave prospecting has provided accurate and detailed fundamental information about the filling sea area and showed the desired effect.
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      Deformation of foundation pit wall has significant influence on the safety of foundation engineering. Many parameters affect the deformation. To find out how much these parameter affect the deformation respectively has special significance for design of the supporting wall of foundation pit. With the foundation pitch project of Yun Yuan Village in Guilin as a case, influence of parameters of soil and supporting structure on the deformation of pit wall is analyzed. A quantitative analysis is carried out with ADINA, a non-linear finite element calculating tool. Result about the relationship between the parameters and the pit wall deformation are obtained from the study.With the rapid development of China's city construction and high rise buildings, deep foundation pitch for high rise building is more and more commonly in use. Accidents of foundation pitch are also frequently happened due to unreasonable supporting structure systems. Foundation pitch accidents are mainly due to two reasons: one is the self-instability of pitch supporting structure and the other is the changes of surrounding environment due to pitch excavation (Qin, 1998). The key problem in the self-instability of pitch supporting structure system is the deformation of pit wall. Therefore, quantitative analysis of relevant factors contribut to the deformation is necessary. For the difficulty of systematical study of the parameters in-sita foundation pitch, numerical simulation for the determination of the quantitative relationship between the parameters and the deformation has great significance (Wang, et al. 2003).
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      As a new bracing structure, the double-row anti-sliding piles based on spatial framework structure, which have the advantages of less displacement in the top of the piles and large anti-force, are developed as a new retaining structure, and can be used to reduce the piles deformation. However, the previous calculation models of double-row piles ignored the deformation coordination action between linking beams and ring beams, the interaction between piles and beams. Further more the calculation results based on the models are not accurate enough. In this paper, a spatial force model of the double-row anti-sliding pile is presented. Taking double-row anti-sliding pile as a single-layer multi-span frame affected by piles, beams and soils, the spatial synergic interaction between top ring beam and linking beam, as well as the affection of soil-arch on the frame are analyzed. The horizontal displacement in front of the double-row anti-sliding pile and distribution of axial force and moment of piles are studied by finite element method. The results reflect commendably the stress and distortion character of the double-row anti-sliding pile. Finally, some rules about the pile-beam-soil interaction in the pile structure are summarized.
  • Track 5. Tunneling and Other Underground Engineering

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      The prediction precision of the ground movement and distortion in mines depends on the predicting parameters. According to the practical observational data from the ground movement monitoring stations of many mines in China, the fuzzy cluster analysis of the resembling phenomena clusters on mining subsidence is carried out by the similarity theory. The resembling phenomena on mining subsidence are approximately classified into three major sorts, and the second major sort is further classified into six subordinate sorts, and also, the parameters of the basic rock strata movement of mining subsidence are calculated out.Based on the classification of the mining subsidence resembling phenomena clusters and the strata movement parameters, the mining subsidence pattern of a new mine and its predicting parameters are determined by the fuzzy pattern recognition theory and the nearest principle. Considering the mining subsidence patterns B1,B2,…,Bn, if a new mining subsidence pattern C is the most closed to the mining subsidence pattern Bi (i=1,2,…,n), then the predicting parameters of the mining subsidence pattern Bi will be chosen as the ones of the new mining subsidence pattern C. The validity and reliability of the determining method of the mining subsidence predicting parameters are verified by the existing engineering instances.
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      This paper has presented several shield posture measurements methods such as manual measurement and automatic measurement which are commonly used in projects. It compares these measuring techniques by analyzing precision and convenience and chooses the best measurement method. Manual method which is used to measure the accuracy of measurements made by automatic equipments. Ensuring the accuracy of measurement, automatic measurement is used in construction surveying and manual measurement is used in control surveying. In practical project two measurements are combined together in high-efficient and speediness.
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      It is required to determine destruction indexes of influencing factor for appraisal of geological conditions. According to historic documents about mining at coal mines and a great deal of statistics and analysis, the geological conditions and the statistical prediction of producing index are discussed, this paper reveals the relations between exposure information surrounding tunnel of working place and actual information on the operational area and establishes a model to predict destruction indexes such as face fault, fold and thin seam etc. The effect of this model is marked approved by many examples. The research can act as guider and reference for management and policy decision of coal mine.
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      The secondary stress distribution and deformation mechanism of excavated mining tunnel of −62m and −74m in Daye mine was studied in the paper. Firstly, the wall-rock was compartmentalized to different engineering geology group and mechanical parameters of wall-rock were determined based on engineering geological exploration and rock mechanics test. Then the state of stress and strain of excavated tunnel was simulated by FLAC3D software, the wall-rock deformation mechanism was analyzed too. The numerical simulation results were validated by convergence monitoring data that obtained in −74m mining tunnel. Studied results show that the range of secondary stress distribution exist differences corresponding to different mining tunnel wall-rock condition, but the characteristic of principal stress distribution is similar that compress stress centralized in sidewall and tensile stress centralized in vault and floor of the mining tunnel.
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      Horizontal freezing induces ground frost heave and ground displacement happens. Excessive uneven displacement or deformation may be dangerous to the surrounding building. The stratum that a Nanjing subway tunnel will traverse through is the s oft and silt clay. The artificial freezing construction method is proposed to help the tunnel to traverse through the worse stratum. To control the ground building deformation and displacement due to the ground frost heave, the frost heave effect for the artificial freezing construction should be predicted before the construction process. The stochastic media theory is proposed to predict the frost heave effect due to the artificial freezing construction in the paper. The basic analysis procedure for analyzing frost heave effect is introduced and ground deformations such as ground vertical displacement, ground curvature are analyzed. The analysis result shows that the ground deformation due to the frost heaves is in the limit of ground displacement control requirement.
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      The monitoring data of landslide displacement are usually disturbed by the impact of rainfall or engineering construction. As a result, the curve of displacement monitoring is always characteristic of step-like. In order to achieve a full understanding of the step-like phenomenon, Fourier transform and wavelet analysis methods were introduced to find out the causes in this study. Firstly, Fourier transform method was used to extract frequency component from the original monitoring data of displacement; secondly, the wavelet transform modulus maxima method was adopted to detect the breakpoint between different frequency components. Based on the detected frequency component and the position of the breakpoint, the quasi-periodic noise could be simulated. Finally, the time-displacement curve without the impact of noise was obtained by subtracting the noise component from the original curve of displacement monitoring. It is suggested that periodic rainfall is the main reason that induces the step-like catastrophic break points in the curve of displacement monitoring. These results provide a reasonable explanation to the occurring of step-like phenomenon in the curve of displacement monitoring and propose a new analysis way for the time forecasting of landslides.
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      Concrete is the important material for Engineering structure, the method to detect the strength of concrete are different, and the rank of strength are not the same, the important reason is that concrete is similar to Composites, the failure mechanism is original defects damaged and performance deteriorative under the effect of loading and corrosive environment. Because the chaos destroyed by damage concrete, the detection of infrared imaging for concrete defect, will be characterized using fractal dimension and concrete damage and fracture criterion and building a viable platform bridge, and the method to detect concrete defect and the accuracy are the key of research topics, through its theory research and the numerical simulation of finite element heat conduction, demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of the method, established the foundation for the follow-up infrared imaging dimension calculations . The paper analyzes the current technical routes and methods of concrete defect detection and strength test, elaborated the theoretical basis and calculation formula of defective concrete depth that detect from precision advanced infrared thermal image, and through the software of Matlab to simulate the FEM heat as well as the calculate and simulate of defect depth, given the original data. There is a need to explain, also can be defined as the temperature gradient and temperature coefficient of thermal infrared, Comprehensive analysis the shape and borders of defect, this can, from the perspective of three-dimensional to judge availability, size, location, size and extent of defect through infrared thermal imaging technology that high resolution.
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      The rules of the overburden strata and ground movement and deformation, and the parameters of the ground movement induced by strip mining below thin bedrocks are unique. According to the thin bedrocks strata in Taiping Coal Mining Area of Yanzhou, this paper, applying comprehensive research method combining engineering geological mechanical model test and finite element numerical simulation, studied the engineering geological mechanism on the overlying strata and ground movement and deformation induced by strip mining below thin bedrocks, revealed the strata displacement or deformation rules. On the condition of ensuring the width left as 40m, to the coal seam of 188m buried depth (among them bedrock only 34m thick), 8.8m minig height, the disign of 30∼40m mining width is reasonable, meanwhile, the extraction ratio added to 42.86%∼50%. The ground subsidence can be controlled effetely as long as the design of the mined-out strip to pillar width ratio is reasonable.
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      Polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete can improve the common concrete flexibility and it is beneficial for interaction between concrete lining structure and rock mass. The use of fiber reinforced concrete with wet sprayed concrete technique can improve the concrete lining structure construction quality and improve the rock mass self-bearing capacity. The wet-sprayed fiber reinforced concrete is first introduced in Jinhuashan railway tunnel early stage lining structure within soft and weak rock mass. The design of Jinhuashan railway tunnel lining structure using fiber reinforced concrete is introduced and the requirement of material used is explained. To evaluate the lining effect using wet-sprayed fiber reinforced concrete, the online monitoring method is used to measure the rock mass pressure and the concrete lining layer stress for both the experimental tunnel sections and comparison tunnel section. The monitoring data result shows that the rock mass pressure in experimental section is even distribution with lower rock mass pressure and lower concrete lining layer stress. The value of rock mass pressure and tunnel lining layer stress in comparison tunnel section is a little higher than that in experimental tunnel section. The experimental tunnel section using fiber reinforced concrete has good lining effect.
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      This paper reports two collapse cases during the course of driving in Kaiserau Tunnel in Germany. This case history brings out several important aspects for tunnel driving. First, it shows the importance of interpretation of measurements and the role of numerical analysis in decision making process. Second, it shows the limitation of the observational method for processes involving spontaneous loss of stability. Moderate or even small deformation does not necessarily mean that sufficient safety is available.
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      The paper reviews the present research situation concerning the soft rock tunnel projects first; then combined with a certain derivation tunnel project in soft rock area, the related problems about the design and construction of the tunnel project are studied and analyzed. The tunnel design includes two stages, namely preliminary design stage before construction and re-designs stage (also called information feedback design) during construction, and the construction of tunnel should be conducted to meet the requirements of design, the safety and economical efficiency. From the viewpoint of New Austrian Tunnel Method (NATM), the two aspects of problems for tunnel design and construction are studied and some ideas are raised. At preliminary design stage, the studied tunnel is designed both by empirical and theoretical design methods, during construction, the re-design is conducted based on in-situ conditions. For such tunnel alignment section where the tunnel pass through the gullies with lower overburden, in order to meet the requirement of tunneling construction, tunnel contour is changed from horseshoe to circular cross section and the support measures are strengthened. During construction, the control blasting and optimization of support method are applied and a good result has been achieved. In the end, conclusions and suggestions about tunnel design and construction in soft rocks are drawn.
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      This study employs daily 8km NOAA-AVHRR data of the Pathfinder program to study changes in the annual variability of vegetation in Sudan, during the time period from 1993 to 2003. The daily data were processed to improve 15-day composites using an iterative approach including metadata and robust statistical techniques. Examination of this time series reveals that the period 1993–2003, marked by a trend towards wetter conditions with region-wide above normal NDVI conditions with maximum in 1994 and 1999. This study employs GIS to examine the relationship between rainfall and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the context of the Sudan, and the value of NDVI is taken as a tool for drought monitoring. The relationship between rainfall and NDVI during 1993 to 2003 in Sudan is examined using spatial analysis methods and a strong positive correlation is found. The correlation is strongest during years of heaviest rainfall, indicating that the relationship between rainfall and NDVI is not a simple linear one.
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      Based on the supposed seepage model and the boundary conditions of the dam foundation, this paper, with numerical simulation and statistical method as research method, centers on the hydraulic gradient of the seepage field and the seepage stability of the dam foundation of Luhun Reservoir. According to the study, the dam functions well because when the reservoir is slowly filled with water, the hydraulic gradients of the cutoff trench, the belt of overflow, and the fault fracture zone of the dam foundation are much smaller than the allowable index, posing no danger to the stability of the dam foundation. This study furnishes theoretical support to the normal work of the reservoir when the supposed water level is 319.5m, 327.5m, 331.8m.
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      It was known that the condition effecting karst collapse was very complicated. Influential factors were various and interdependent, geologic body itself was heterogeneous and uncertain, and human activities were changeful. Thus, it had great application value and theoretical significance that introduced the fuzzy theory in prediction of karst collapse hazard. Fuzzy pattern recognition was used to predict the covered karst collapse hazard in Wuhan. Since existing closeness degree couldn't recognized efficiently, weight value was mingled with closeness degree and generalized Euclidean weight distance closeness degree was defined. In order to research, thirteen main factors of influencing karst collapse's hazard were selected as the evaluation index according to the index table of predicting karst ground collapse (Chen, 1994). Furthermore, weight value of each index could be obtained by means of analytic hierarchy process (AHP). By the method, karst collapse risks of 1631 cells in the study area were predicted. Moreover, the result of recognition was in concordance with the fact. Accordingly, it verified that the model of fuzzy pattern recognition with generalized Euclidean weight distance closeness degree was very feasible to predict the covered karst collapse hazard in Wuhan.
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      Based on the fluid-solid coupling and solution transport theory, the transport coupling model of organic contaminant in landfill leachate was established. The decay equation of landfill biodegradation was founded by experiments because the biodegradation was taken into consideration. The established model was numerically solved by Galerkin method, which simulated the transport behaviors of organic contaminant of landfill leachate in groundwater. It predicted the temporal and spatial distribution features of contaminant concentration. The modeling results of coupling and uncoupling were compared with monitoring data respectively. And the contaminant plume areas and distribution range were numerically simulated. The results showed that the changing trend of contaminant concentration simulated by the coupling model agreed with monitoring data. Thus it is verified the coupling model is reliable and practical.
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      The study level of karst collapses is still macroscopic and qualitative right now. A lot of work about the hazard forecast methods of Karst collapses has been done, the application of many new methods such as grey statistics, neural network, and AHP-fuzziness compositive evaluation has heightened the precision obviously and a lot of better effictiveness has been obtained. The PLS Path Model adopt the iteration solution of monogenesis or multivariant linear regression, this model does not need hypothesizing the probability distribution of observation variables and the requirement of sample point capacitance is very loose, and the problem that the model can not be recognized does not exist, so it is an effective linearity statistics modeling method. Therefore, in this paper, based on analysis on the influence factors in Wuhan karst collapses and Gis technique, the PLS Path Model was used to forecast the hazard potentiality of Karst collapse in Wuhan city and good results have been obtained. It was found that the application of this model could get good effictiveness and this model should be adopted widely.
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      The accurate determination of initial geo-stress field is the important premise of numerical simulation to the excavation of underground powerhouse. It is usually measured to get the value of initial geo-stress field. But it can not meet the demand of construction by this way. So it is very important to seek the methods that simulates initial geo-stress field according to several measured points. The FEM analysis-linear regression is usually used to simulate the initial geo-stress field. In this paper, the development of back-analysis to initial geo-stress field and the method of FEM analysis-linear regression are briefly introduced, and the initial geo-stress of an underground powerhouse is back-ananlysised. The results show that the back-analysis is concordance with the measured data.
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      Trace length is one of important indexes describing rock mass discontinuity quantificational. A method to estimate mean trace length is deduced, which is based on probability density function and the intersect frequency between trace and window. Taylor formula is introduced to simplify the formula firstly, and the error of different simplified degree is discussed. The result shows that cubic polynomial could meet the design requirement generally. Then abutment rock mass of an arch dam in Guizhou province is as an example, compared with mean trace lengths estimated and the measurement data, it shows that mean trace length estimated is slightly larger than the measurement mean value. The result explains the simplified calculate method is feasible. It has certain reference value to analyses and study complicated fractured rock mass.
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      Rockburst is a geological disaster occurred usually in deep mines. Because of poor understanding of the mechanism and influence factors of rockbust, it is very difficult to give accurate prediction using conventional methods. A new model based on Gaussian process (GP), which is a probabilistic kernel machine leaning and has become a power tool for solving highly nonlinear problems, therefore, is proposed. At first, case histories of rockburst occurrence with the real records of rockburst intensity and influence factors of rockbust are collected and are taken as prior knowledge to be learned by GP binary classification machine learning. Maximum tangential stress, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength of rock and rockburst tendency index of rock, which can reflect the internal and external conditions of rockburst occurrence nicely, are suggested to be main influential factors of rockburst. Then, the nonlinear mapping relationship between rockburst intensity and its influence factors can be established easily by GP model. Finally, prediction for the novel conditions in deep mines can be obtained using the model. The new model is applied in prediction for rockburt intensity at practical projects in China, Norway and USSR. Results of case study show the model is feasible, effective and simple to implement for rockburst prediction.
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      A multidisciplinary approach based on logistic regression and antecedent effective rainfall was adopted in this paper in order to study the very complex phenomenon of rainfall-triggered debris flows. An integrated method for quantitative analysis of critical rainfall has been promoted. And a test of this approach was applied in Xiuyan, Liaoning province. It is very important to do research on the relationship between rainfall and debris flows. But there is no any universal method to calculate the critical rainfall. In this paper, the rainfall of days when debris flows happened or not was collected from rainfall stages. The rainfall samples of safe days were gained through counting ahead. And the most suitable days for analysis of samples were analyzed based on logistic regression model. Experiential value (0.84) and actual value (0.61) were respectively adopted as the effective rainfall coefficient. Through the test good classifying effect of this method was approved.
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      Danger evaluation of debris flow is the foundational work in debris flow forecast. Based on the surveying data and analysis of the developing characteristic, formation conditions and influent factors of the debris flow in Beijing Mountains, this paper establishes the evaluation indexes and the classification standards of the danger evaluation. With the multi-objective fuzzy pattern recognition method, the evaluation model is also established. With this model, the 15 debris flow valleys in Huairou County are evaluated. The result is consistent with the field surveying result, which proves that the model represented by this paper is feasible and effective, and the results can reflect the actual situation. Thus, the multi-objective fuzzy pattern recognition method can be one of the methods to evaluate the danger grade of the debris flow.
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      The water intrusion is a common problem in tunnels, however, the factors affecting water-gushing amount are so complex that the current prediction methods have their limitations because of the difference of geology environment although there many mathematic methods. On the basis of Karst hydrogeological condition of Qiyueshan tunnel, water inflow quantity is predicted by seeping coefficient of rainfall method, engineering comparison and finite element method. The FE method has an advantage in calculating water inflow in Karst tunnel for each section. The calculation has two steps which are respectively constructing orifice free-flow equation and FE numerical simulation. And the results reflect the change of water inflow quantity of positions in different distance apart from tunnel mouth and its relation with flow and velocity. Compared with the results from other methods, the FE calculating method is of great practical value which can reflect the whole process of tunnel water discharge more deeply and completely when we use this method to calculate water inflow quantity with other methods at the same time.
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      Hardfill dam is a new type of dam, which is developed recently. The aim of the paper is to analyze what geologic condition is suited to construct the dam by considering the characteristic of the Hardfill dam itself and to study for the given geologic condition how to choose the reasonable impervious and drainage system to control the dam body and foundation's seepage to make sure the safety of the project. After analyzing many familiar dam foundations geologic condition, two types of typical Hardfill dam foundation are concluded. The dam foundation seepage field law is analyzed by dam foundation seepage discharge, uplift pressure and seepage gradient of some typical positions after setting reasonable impervious and drainage measures on the two dam foundations. The calculation results show the adaptability of Hardfill dam foundation is comparatively nice, and the dam foundation safety can be ensured if appropriate impervious and drainage measures are adopted.
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      Dangerous rock is a main type of geology disaster of a mountainous area in China. Because of high speeding movement, high impacted energy, natural sending and complicated moving process, it is very difficult for engineer prevention and treatment. Based on the methods of physics collision computation and numerical simulation, the dangerous falling rock of the slope is taken as an example, the motion locus is determined. The results will provide reliable evidences for the prevention and treatment design of collapse and rock fall and it is a significant guidance to engineering practice.
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      Risk evaluation is an important tool to per evaluate the potential hazards, which involves not only the natural characteristic of hazard, but also the socioeconomic properties of the vulnerability. Therefore risk evaluation is a complicated and important scientific problem. According to the analysis of the developed characteristic, forming condition and influent factors of the mining collapse in mountain area in Beijing, this paper gives the index system and methods for hazard evaluation and vulnerability evaluation. The risk evaluation equation is “Risk = Hazard × Vulnerability”. And the risk degree is classified to 5 grades. Based on these methods, Mentougou District is chosen as an example to evaluate its risk degree of the mining collapse and draw its zoning map of the risk grades. The evaluation result is coincidence with the actual situation. It can be a foundation for the collapse controlling in this district. The method can be taken as an example for evaluation of mining collapse in other mountains in Beijing.
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      The problems of scattering of out-plane line source load and dynamic analysis of a shallow-embedded circular lining structure in the field of linearly elastic dynamic mechanics are studied in this paper. The methods of Green's Function are used here. We construct a suitable Green's function, which is an essential solution to the displacement field for the elastic space possessing shallow-embedded circular lining structure while bearing out-plane harmonic line source load at arbitrary point. The scattering wave which satisfies the condition of stress free on the ground surface of half-space containing a shallow-embedded circular lining structure impacted by incident steady SH-wave is constructed based on the symmetry of SH-wave scattering and the method of multi-polar coordinates system. Then, we take advantage of the boundary conditions around the lining structure to solve the problem. Therefore, the solution of the problem can be reduced to a series of algebraic equations and solved numerically by truncating the finite terms of the infinite algebraic equations. Finally, with two different dimensionless parameters, numerical examples are provided to show the influence of wave number, shear modulus, thickness and distance between the center of the circular lining structure and ground surface upon the dynamic stress concentration by out-plane line source load.
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      These instructions give you basic guidelines for preparing papers for conference proceedings. The paper first introduces the principle and key of tunnel-supporting characteristic curve, and analyzes the stress distribution behavior and deformation of surrounding rock after excavation according to the Moll-Coulomb strength destruction criterion. And then, on the base of discussing the rigidity of preliminary supporting structure, the author explains the solution method of composite supporting supply curve. What's more, combining with the supporting structure optimization design of Jiepaiguang Tunnel on Shiman Expressway, the thesis represents the practical application of convergence-confinement method, and discusses the parameter arrangement, the strata convergence curve, the preliminary supporting stress & deformation, and together with the interaction between supporting structure and surrounding rock. Finally, the optimal design scheme got in the paper provides theoretical foundation for the construction.
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      Rockmass structure has a very important dominated function for stability of railway roadbed slope. Rockmass structure is principal composed of a large number of developing hard constructional surface which is smallish, spiccato, stochastic distributing. According to statistical analysis of locale project rockmass joint, rockmass structure subarea of railway roadbed slope is made. Research method of statistic damage model is used to calculate damage tensor quantity of each of rockmass structure subareas of railway roadbed slope. The analysis model which uses the biggest principal damage value to evaluate quality of construction rockmass is set up and used in practice.
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      Based on detailed field observation, the study discussed the current development of the ground subsidence and distribution in Pingding Shan coalfield. Furthermore, from following there aspects, rock mass stress field change, the groundwater drainage, faultage structure, the causes of formation of ground subsidence in Pingding Shan coalfield were analyzed deeply. The result of investigation and analysis made clear: subsidence of large bound caused by the groundwater drainage was the major reason.
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      The seepage induced by high internal water pressure is a factor often ignored in the design of hydraulic tunnel, and its effects on external water flow is still unclear. The seepage-stress coupling analysis is used to investigate the influence of the seepage based on the Biot's consolidation theory and the entity mixed model, in which the variation of steel stress is used to represent the change of stress state in the structure.Then sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the maximum water pressure acting on the exterior surface of tunnel liner. The impact factors include the crack width in concrete of tunnel liner, the permeability of surrounding rock and the dip angle of fault. The analysis results reveal that the tensile stress of rebar decreases in the coupling analysis step. The results also show that the maximum water pressure acting on the exterior surface of tunnel liner is the most sensitive to the crack width and insensitive to the dip angle of fault.
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      In the paper, HF radar detection is firstly used in measuring the thickness variation of the partition wall between Cave 5 and Cave 6 in Yungang Grottoes and has resulted in good effect. Based on profile interpretation of HF radar and refining treatment using SURFER software, a 3-D simulated image could be obtained, and then a 3-D finite element model could be also established by ANSYS software. Using the same method, the paper takes the partition wall as an example, and analyses its stability emphatically through simulating the two caves. The result shows that the method of 3-D finite element assisted by HF radar detection has high precision and provides a new feasible approach to modeling for 3-D finite element stability analysis in grottoes.
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      Traditional design of roadway was usually based on the method of CAD. That could not embody the geological features where the roadway was through, and also could not reflect the spatial relations of the roadways network. The design of roadway can be divided into two parts: the section and the axis. The goal is developing a design system with the function of optimization design for roadway in 3D environment. Geological models are established in 3D environment first. The roadway model is established by constructive solid geometry (CSG) method, and the relationships between roadway, axis and section are linked at the meaning time. It can perform the function of space analysis for the design of roadway in virtue of the GIS. The spatial relations between roadway and the coals seams, the faults and the constructed roadways can be considered, so it can implement the optimization design. For the roadways network existing crossing relationship, the calculation model and method are proposed to perform collision analysis accurately.
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      To solve the problems in mine disaster rescue arising from separate geological model and laneway model, this paper proposes a multilayer 3-D model which combines the geological model, laneway model and 3-D visualization technique. We first elaborate the techniques needed in 3D model for complex geological body and laneway 3-D model. Then we establish an integrated 3-D model based on the multi-stratum 3-D geological model and 3-D laneway section model. Finally we design an implementation method which takes into consideration topological relationship of node-arc model with stratum lithology and node correlations. From that, we further apply the heuristic searching algorithm in our model and implement intelligent selection of emergency rescue routes. Our result demonstrates that this integrated system of 3-D geological model with laneway model and 3-D visualization technique has great practical value in rescue of mine disaster and in location of the disaster spot.
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      In Pingdingshan mining area, air storage of large mount of coal gangue, produced in the course of coal excavating, has severely polluted and destroyed the local environment. The local environmental problems include land occupation, atmospheric pollution, water and soil pollution, deformation and destabilization of coal gangue dump, ecological environment deterioration, and so on. According to the component character of the coal gangue, the approaches to the coal gangue utilization, such as fuel substitute, building materials, chemical industry products, agriculture fertilizers, filling materials, were expressed in this paper. The measures of coal gangue development and utilization have double meanings of environmental protection and economic benefit in Pingdingshan mining area.
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      Blind source separation (BSS) is a hotspot problem in modern engineering area; ICA is an effective algorithm for BSS problem. The article describes the BSS problem, introduces the basic principle of ICA algorithm, and gives a fastICA algorithm based on maximal-negentropy. Finally, the article explains the application of ICA algorithm in geological engineering with some examples, and points out the effort direction in the future.
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      In this paper, the typical hazards - seawater intrusion have been chosen to investigate the coastal geological hazard assessment method. The fuzzy hierarchy comprehensive evaluation approach based on GIS is presented to study and demonstrate the main principle and process of coastal hazard assessment. Among these, the hierarchy analysis method is used to define weights of each assessment factors, and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to determine membership value. The realization of hazard assessment is carried out through space grid overlay analysis by GIS tool. Then, taking Bao'an district of Shenzhen as example, we carried on hazard assessment on seawater intrusion by using fuzzy hierarchy evaluation method based on GIS.
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      Based on the theory of mechanics of porous seepage and thermodynamics, from the non-isothermal point of view, a coupled heat and mass transfer numerical model describing the generation and migration of contaminant gas within landfill is established. The results of simulation show that due to the imbalance of heat generation in landfill, there is a non-uniform distribution of temperature which causes temperature gradient that has significant impacts on spatial distribution and temporal change of contaminant gas within landfill. This coupling model is getting closer to the reality of landfill site with more veracity on simulation and prediction of pressure variation of contaminant gas and temperature distribution. The model could be utilized for investigating gas generation and transport in landfill, and the analysis on pressure distribution under the non-isothermal condition is also significant to designing of the LFG recovery systems and liner systems.
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      It is essential that archaeological sites are kept well preserved for their historical and cultural value. The investigations on the spot indicate that groundwater seepage has already destroyed archaeological sites and ruined cultural relics. This is the main environ-geological reason to cause destruction of archaeological sites. Groundwater numerical simulation can create a conceptual and a numerical model, to simulate the seepage field of the investigated area. In this paper we used the Xiaoshan Kuahu Bridge Canoe site to explain the application of numerical simulation to practical cases. On the basis of hydrogeological conditions, we simulated first the original groundwater contour map, and then predicted the change of seepage felid after putting drainage into practice. The results of the simulation are consistent with the observed data, proving that numerical simulation can provide a means to sustain the conservation of archaeological sites.
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      Taking the stability analysis of Huocheling tunnel as example, the paper introduces the plastic-elastic mechanical analysis of surrounding rock stress-strain state, then explains the sensitivity of mechanical parameters (E,μ,C,φ)influencing the surrounding rock stability according to FLAC3D numerical simulation software. It indicates that Elastic modulus E has the greatest affection on surrounding rock displacement; the shear parameters C,φ also have great influences on stress redistribution; and the adjustments of μ and φ influence the plastic area distribution and the surrounding rock stability directly. These conclusions not only provide the basis for surrounding rock stabilization but also provide guiding actions for the field construction.
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      This paper takes Xiamen Rail-cum-road Bridge which locates at sea shoal for example. By observing water flow, suspected sediment and seabed surface sediment together with the geological and engineering environment in the sea area, the paper analyzes the sediments source, transportation tendency and variation of old and new submarine landform. It also calculates the sediment scouring and predicts the scouring amounts and provides scientific basis for indispensable bridge piers' protections along with to keeping the channel unblocked.
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      When a tunnel is very long, it is difficult to establish a tunnel construction control network by triangulation method. Therefore, in recent years, GPS positioning technology is used for tunnel horizontal control survey. In the layout of middle-distance tunnel control network, the datum of the control network must be designed and the side length should be projected onto the mean ground plane of the survey. Moreover, initial data must be processed. To avoid the demnification of internal coincidence accuracy of GPS network, “one point and one azimuth” is used as initial data of control network. This paper, taking the implementation of the construction control network of the general canal tunnel of Piloting Water from Da to Huang Project in Qinghai Province as an example, introduces the experience that GPS technique is utilized to realize the holing through control survey for very long tunnel in the case of no specification for tunnel transfixion survey exceeding 8 kilometers at home. In addition, the basic theory and course of data processing in tunnel GPS network are also expounded and the method of “one point and one azimuth” used for adjustment of trilateration network is discussed in the paper. The results of this research have a fairly great value of reference in scheming of very long tunnel holing through control survey.Generally triangulation or precise traversing is adopted in tunnel construction. However, lots of transferring points need layout. This leads to large number of work and serious error cumulative accumulation. Triangulation and precise traversing needs high observation conditions and inter-visibility, and the environment around the tunnel increases the difficulty of the general surveying method. As a new high-tech positioning method, GPS provides the insurance for engineering control survey with high efficiency and internal coincidence accuracy of the net, and no need of large number of tie-points and working all day. The “Technical Specifications for Hydraulic and Hydroelectric Engineering” only provides technical standard for tunnel holing through less than 8 kilometers long, so it has important significance on hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering, highroad and railway project that how to realize the super-long tunnel control survey using GPS technique.
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      Municipal refuse is the main contamination source of soil and groundwater. The typical contamination of landfill leachate transport in seepage control system was studied, and the model for predicting the concentration distribution and migration of leachate in landfill was established based on groundwater seepage theory in porous medium and solute transfer theory. Then taking copper and zinc as example, the model was used to quantitative analysis the concentration distribution and to evaluate the developmental trend of pollution. In the designed working term of 30 years, the retardation ratio of the seepage control system is 83.43% for zinc and the ration for copper is up to 90.8%. The results show that the leachate and contaminants are retarded in seepage control system built in landfill.
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      Alteration extraction of Landsat-ETM+ imageries has been used for many years to explore gold minerals in Zhaoyuan city in Shandong Province. This paper aims to introduce some methods to detect the alteration zones (iron oxides, hydroxyl, and carbonates) in the wall rocks using Landsat-ETM+ imagery. Band selection played an important role in this research. Before choosing the bands, the basic information, the correlation coefficient of all bands, and the correlation between the bands and alteration zones were analyzed. By using the spectral characteristics of the wall rocks and different band ratios (reflected∕absorbed), the alteration zones in the wall rocks could be delineated. Owing to the presence of gossans in Zhaoyuan city, the mixture of iron oxide and clay minerals affects the spectral reflectance of the satellite data. Comparing the research result with existing mines, the technology identified 43 (89.5%) out of the total 48 mines.
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      Based on the feature and optimum purpose of gravity retaining wall, the optimal mathematical model is proposed taking the retaining wall with horizontal bottom as the example. The four parameters: the wall's top width, the wall surface's slope ratio, the wall toe's height and the toe's width are chosen to design parameters. The cost of retaining wall per unit length is chosen to be the objective function; the requirements of the structure, the stability against sliding, the stability against overturning and the bearing capacity of foundation are selected to be constrained functions. Based on the complex optimization algorithm, the optimum design program of gravity retaining wall is developed. The example design showed that the optimum design program can get the best design result with the lowest cost by checking the stability only once. The optimum design is efficient, and the cost is lower than that of the conventional design by comparing their design results. The optimum design program of gravity retaining wall is practicable. Comparing the same height walls, retaining wall reclining on the slope is the most economical.
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      As the rockfall is complex and ever-changing, so in the analysis process, mainly discussed the slope of the morphological parameters, and other factors' impact were omitted, or had little impact with an assumption. As the project example, rock collapse occurred continuously after JingYing Expressway had been completed for some parts of complex geological conditions, which impacting on traffic and the safety of nearby residents seriously. In this paper, using fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation methods, firstly from the evaluation factors defined, and gave the membership of the evaluation a detailed analysis, and reached the final of the parameters relationship, meanwhile, gave the various parameters portfolio a preliminary discussions, finally gained the summary of the outcome, which can provide a basis for the future with a similar project in analogy.
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      The influence factors of karst collapse are very complex, the kinds of which are various and inter-restrictions. The influence factors, such as lithology, karst development degree, groundwater fluctuations and human engineering activities, usually are expressed by categorical data. Although the mathematical theory of quantitative forecasting is quite mature, it has many limitations in processing large scale qualitative data. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce and apply the improved fuzzy k-modes algorithm processing qualitative data to evaluate the ground collapse risk in covered karst region. In this method the frequency of each attribute value of each attribute is taken as the clustering center. The distance of objects can be modified by the weight of each attribute. A non-random method is applied to choose the clustering centers, which can ensure the clustering results of complex qualitative data accuracy and reliability. In this study we choose 13 mainly influence factors as evaluating indexes at the basis of the geological environment and inducing factors of the ground collapse in covered karst region of Wuhan. The improved fuzzy k-modes algorithm is applied to forecast the ground collapse risk in covered karst region of Wuhan city. The predicting results tally with the facts. That indicates that the improved fuzzy k-modes algorithm is effective in predicting the ground collapse risk in covered karst region of Wuhan city. It also provides us the scientific decision-making basis of disaster prevention and reduction of Wuhan city.
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      The soil stress relieving method is used to correct the inclination of hazardous building, in which one minor subsidence side of the building is bored with relative concentrated holes. Then the soil of foundation in the holes is picked out step by step, so as to relieve or transfer foundation stress in the relevant area, to prompt soft soil in the side to flow away, to force it to settle, and not to disturb the soil of foundation in the other side. As a result, the loaded center of gravity of the building is adjusted by loading in minor subsidence side. Taking one representative case as an example, the paper introduces our ideas, the principles of program and the processes of stress relieving method. The results show that it has some refer enable significance for rectifying deviated constructions.
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      Due to frequently interaction between surface water and groundwater, water resources in Zhengzhou are assessed by an integration of surface water and groundwater, water quantity and quality and their distribution characters of quantity in different quality. The assessed results show that the average of the total amount of water resources from 1956 to 2005 in Zhengzhou is 1280.40×106 m3∕year, where surface water resources is 703.60×106 m3∕year, groundwater resources is 772.32×106 m3∕year, and the repetitive calculation is 152.55×106 m3∕year. The integrated water quality is from grade III to grade V. Apart from grade III in Yinghe zone and grade IV in Huaxia zone, the rest is of grade V. The water resources of grade III is 267.69×106 m3∕year, grade IV is 416.07×106 m3∕year, grade V is 246.72×106 m3∕year, and worse than grade V is 349.93×106 m3∕year (mostly surface water).
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      The reach Reef Blasting engineering of Tongluo gorge to Louxi river in Three Gorge, will be implemented. Control blasting technique is applied to underwater demolition theatrically; the method and properties of blasting are proposed by the analysis and comparison of blasting vibration test. Directing at the underwater demolition under the complicated environment in the neighborhood of urban area, this paper expounds control blasting technique used in the underwater demolition which decreases the damage to important protection caused by blasting. Therefore, it contributes the theoretical methods to the similar projects.
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      Engineering geological conditions for long and deep buried tunnel is very complex and geological disasters often occur. The geological prediction for rock tunnel is one of the important parts of information construction. In this paper, the task, prediction methods and existing problems of geological prediction for tunnel construction are discussed, which should be helpful to the tunnel engineering construction.
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      Making rigid models for nine high-rise buildings according to diminishing scale ratio of 1:200 on the west of the project in Quanzhou. Setting sufficient monitoring points on the outside of these buildings to carry out synchronous wind channel pressure testing experiments. After the experiments, average wind pressure coefficient and pulsating wind pressure coefficient are acquired. The results indicate that the static interferential vibration among the nine high-rise buildings decreases the wind load acting on each building.
  • Track 6. Surveying, Mapping Engineering and Remote Sensing

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      Based on the author's analysis and research, the experience is very important in the remote sensing application domain, which is difficult for a beginner to grasp comprehensively within a short time. The knowledge base system technology is a good way to manage associated knowledge. All corresponding knowledge was grouped into the knowledge about remote sensing data, GIS data, object class, the interrelation among entities with different class, interpretation experience and data fusion to build an effective remote sensing application knowledge base. The paper analyzed their characters, discussed knowledge representing way and proposed a knowledge base framework. Knowledge acquisition is the key part of KB and knowledge acquiring ways for different knowledge were discussed in detail. Application is the final goal of knowledge base through inferring to get it. And five application goals for inferring were summarized. Base on the framework and knowledge expressing way, author designed four inferring ways: relation inferring of entities, positive inferring, conversing inferring and project application inferring. Based on the above, the authors designed remote sensing application teaching and training system. A series of application practices show that it can manage effectively the corresponding experience knowledge of remote sensing application, assist user in accumulating experience knowledge and doing some teaching and training as well as certain corresponding practical work. However, the frame work didn't include radiation and physics knowledge.
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      GPS has been widely used in engineering surveying and deformation monitoring. Based on the comparison and analysis of the solutions of three types of representative on-line GPS data processing software, it is concluded that: (1) if 1hr data amount is used to generate the solution, the precision of coordinate generated by AUSPOS is cm level, while the precision of 了 coordinate generated by SCOUT and CSRS-PPP is dm level; (2) if the data amount used to generate the solution is between 2 hr and 6 hr, the precision of coordinate generated by AUSPOS ,SCOUT and CSRS-PPP is all up to cm level ; (3) if the data amount is more than 6 hr, the precision of the solution generated by AUSPOS and SCOUT can be up to mm level, while the precision of coordinate generated by CSRS-PPP is still cm level. The result of this research has a value of reference in selecting proper on-line GPS data processing software and determining data collecting time in engineering surveying and deformation monitoring.
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      In exploration or design of groundwork, soil layer is often supposed to be plane, and the effect of Lenticular sand body and weak intercalated layer is often ignored, which is not proper. Actually, due to high compressibility and porosity, lenticular sand body in an intercalated layer will cause asymmetric settlement of ground, which is much more dangerous as compared with symmetrical settlement. Boolean stochastic modeling technology is used to form lenticular sand body with shape close to ellipse in this article so as to study the law of distribution of lenticular sand body according to borehole data. The results show that, Boolean stochastic modeling method is propitious to simulate spatial distribution of lenticular sand body and is an effective method in simulation as it can reflect the actual geological conditions. On occasions of little whole material , the lenticular sand body continuity model established by Boolean method makes modeling parameters more reasonable and credible. In the practical application, geologic information can be added into to the model easily, the simulation result is close to the geology notion comparatively.
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      According to the feature of control surveying and development situation of field data acquisition and processing, combining with the PDA, which are widely used in mobile field, a design idea of system for data acquisition and processing of control surveying based on PDA was introduced in the article. The development of this system was carried out under Operating System of Windows CE, the language used for development is Visual Basic .Net, which can provide a emulate PDA environment for development on a personal computer (PC). After system development was finished on PC, the system was then transplanted to real PDA environment for verification. The developing thinking and realization of system was described in the article. Data files structure was designed to match the requirement of the system and main data structure of traverses was introduced. The system can meet design objective on the structure and functions to realize data acquisition and processing of control surveying. It is also verified by an example of control network. The result indicates that the system is practical, reliable and easy to use for control surveying. It can also greatly improve work efficiency in the field. The system for real-time data acquisition and processing of control surveying based on PDA possesses the reality and feasibility for inside and outside integration.
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      There have been many flood disasters and geological disasters of landslides and mudslides caused by weather disasters. Especially, Short-term adverse weather conditions have a direct impact on geological disasters. The weather data source of high-precision on real time can be provided by GPS technology. At the same time, the high-precision and real-time weather forecast can provide important and basic information for geological disasters monitoring, forecasting and prevention. However, the precision of the total zenith delays in troposphere directly affects the estimating precision of the water vapor contents on stations, then, affects the accuracy of real-time weather forecast in the application of GPS meteorology. In this paper, the total zenith delays of GPS observational station are solved respectively on GPS data of GPS observational station grouped with IGS stations of different number using high-precision software-GAMIT∕GLOBK developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The calculated results are comparatively analyzed and it is demonstrated that the best number of IGS tracking stations for improving the precision of the total zenith delays in troposphere was 3. It is of great realizable significance.
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      LIDAR(Light Detection and Ranging) is a new technology of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) coordinates with high precise and density, which gathers laser measure distance, computer, GPS(Global Positioning System) and INS(Inertial Navigation System) in the integral whole. This paper briefly introduces LIDAR Technology. Then the character and demand of TFACZ (Tidal Flat and Coastal Zone) is analyzed, and the analytic result indicates that LIDAR technology is the most effective means of solving problems of geographical data acquisition in TFACZ. Lastly the paper discusses lots of applications of LIDAR Technology in Topographic Survey of TFACZ.
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      In order to know Taiyuan Fault Basin stratum, fault distribution and its activity, in this paper, Three-Dimensional (3D) geological visualized modeling technology was utilized to build a 3D geological model of Taiyuan Quaternary Fault Basin based on the collection and collation of borehole sample data. From borehole histogram to vertical section of stratum and stratum surface TIN, the paper realized the 3D visualization based on ArcGIS, which has laid a good foundation for further analysis of Taiyuan Fault Basin stratum, fault distribution and its activity.
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      The paper studies some main techniques on information integrating and processing of building Highway Environment Monitoring Information System. Aimed at building and developing of Highway Environment Monitoring Information System, the data organizing and processing, database building and software designing has been discussed in detail, which provides an approach for practical GIS establishing.
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      Aiming at the complexity and spatial variability of the water inrush from coal floor, the paper proposed a method of appraising the risk of water inrush based on coupled SVM with GIS. Firstly, using the new machine learning tool-support vector machine, the paper presents a new method of forecast of water inrush from coal floor based on least square support vector machine and constructs the prediction model. Overcoming the extra-learning problem of ANN, the complicated nonlinear relationship between the water inrush risk and its affected actors is presented as well. The SVM following the principle of structure risk minimization, the paper also analyzed how kernel parameter σ and penal factor C affect the forecast accuracy. Then the SVM-GIS coupled appraising model and the realizing method are introduced. The GIS realized the map layers management for complex spatial data efficiently. Finally a real case is studied and it is demonstrated that the method is feasible and has good potential application.
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      The Three Gorges Project region is complicated in natural condition, full of rain storm and geological disaster. The main disasters are landslide and debris flow. In this paper, it is interpreted to construct the detecting and forecast system with the application of new remote sensing techniques and factors of vegetation and water system. It is discussed that, using the advanced LiDAR technique, airborne digital camera and their products, the excellence of capturing 3D data in high speed, characteristics of data processing in short periods and the importance of dynamic monitoring, disaster forecast and evaluation in Three Gorges Reservoir region. Also, we use Trimble GPS RTK system checking the accuracy of the LiDAR data in TGP region, and get some useful conclusion.
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      As an advanced remote sensing technology for more than ten years, hyper spectral remote sensing has the ability to identify observation objects much more accurately and efficiently than other remote sensing methods. In this paper, the study and application conditions of airborne hyperspectal remote sensing for marine surveying such as red tide, sea ice, and coastal erosion are introduced by giving parts of their practical study examples. In addition, the basic processing principles and methods which are used in the studies and applications are analyzed, and the reformative methods are also discussed.
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      Engineering geological alignment analysis of the oil and gas pipeline of Kuche region in Xinjiang is introduced as a case in this paper. Based on engineering geological analysis model, several important engineering geological factors are selected as evaluating factors, which are quantified by combining AHP and expert judgment. The calculation of engineering geological alignment analysis of pipeline is realized semi-automation based on the data management and spatial analysis functions of MAPGIS. According to the calculated engineering geological composite index, the optimized route is determined.
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      The nominal accuracy of PDA GPS is ±10m, however, the results of experiment show that its practical absolute positioning accuracy is approximately ±80m and its stability of real-time positioning is ±30m. In addition, the positioning accuracy can reach about ±5m in 5 minutes. The main factors of position error are systematic error and gross error. The observation condition is the root of gross error, like unsatisfactory satellite intervisibility condition. While atmospheric delay of the GPS positioning satellite and positioning signal cause the systematic error. The key contents of this paper are the relations between the PDA GPS positioning accuracy and observation hours, the differentiation theory of different errors and their correction models.
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      The author, taking the primary data models as an entrance, proposes a solid mineral reserve estimating method based on integration mode of spatial data models. The method connect (1) the series section model with traditional reserve estimating methods, (2) volume and block model with the geological statistic method of reserve estimating method, (3) section-tin model with random mineral mesial chart, (4) DEM with mineral area simulating, which integrate multi- solid mineral reserve estimating method as a whole, implementing the mineral configuration and estimated diggings 3D visualization. The method can not only satisfy internal traditional reserve estimating methods, but also combines international geological statistic method of reserve estimating. The prototype system has conducted in several mineral areas in our country with 3D visualization, receiving satisfactory effect.
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      The Project of South to North Transfer Water (PSNTW) has been started up. So the mid-line project of diversion line, which means leading the water in Yangtze river to Danjiangkou reservoir, has raised the related department's regard. The China Geological Survey (CGS) organized the related diversion project which including the investigation of engineering geology and environmental geology of Daning river and Xiangxi river valley in 2005. To do the quantificational estimation, ten topic indexes including regional stability and engineering geological condition in key area (such as selection start of lead-water, planned tunnel, reservoir and so on) were chose and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to select the better diversion line between the two lines above in this paper The result shown that Jiandao gorge-Longbei bay diversion line in western of the Daning river was the best.
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      In order to assess SDI system application in the condition of wastewater reuse, three treatments with three replications were designed. These treatments included check treatment with drinking water (CH), surface drip irrigation with wastewater (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation with wastewater (SDI). In addition, before pipeline, a SDI filtration was designed to improve biological index of wastewater. The results of this research showed that the BOD5, TSS and nitrogen component decreased during the filtration acceptably. But the microbiological factors didn't improve completely. In this condition, injection of wastewater below the soil surface (SDI system) could decrease the surface microbiological pollution significantly as compared to CH. In conclusion, the SDI system recommended in the wastewater reuse condition and application of new system of drilling considered for installing, monitoring and maintenance of SDI.

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