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Energy and Power Generation Handbook: Established and Emerging Technologies

  • Author(s)/Editor(s):
  • Published:
    2011
  • DOI:
    10.1115/1.859551
Description | Details

This comprehensive reference contains contributions by over 50 experts from around the world. Topics cover aspects of power generation from all known sources of energy around the globe, including solar, wind, hydro, tidal and wave power, bio energy (including bio-mass and bio-fuels), waste-material, geothermal, fossil, petroleum, gas and nuclear. Nanotechnology and the role of NASA in photovoltaic and wind energy are also covered. A unique aspect of this publication is its foundation in scholarly discussions and expert opinions, enabling the reader to make decisions regarding which energy source(s) may be used in a given situation. The handbook, with nearly 700 pages, includes about 1,250 references and over 750 figures, tables and pictures as well as an extensive index. A brief biographical sketch is also included for each contributing author.

  • Copyright:
    All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ©  2011  ASME
  • ISBN:
    9780791859551
  • No. of Pages:
    708
  • Order No.:
    859551
Front Matter PUBLIC ACCESS
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  • I. SOLAR ENERGY

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      The use of solar energy for generating power is a concept that has been around for a long time. Some early examples of this, to be dealt with in the sections that follow, include dishes and troughs that were developed in a flurry of creative activity between the late 1800s and the early 1900s. There was somewhat of a hiatus from much development in first half of the 20th century until work again resumed after the Second World War. This was driven by interest in exploring space as well as other thrusts. An excellent summary of the early history of solar applications has been given by Butti and Perlin [1].Momentum to examine renewable energy generally picked up considerably with the oil embargo of the 1970s. At that time, President Jimmy Carter outlined the challenge the US particularly, and the world more generally, faced in terms of dealing with energy issues. He warned that the situation was “the moral equivalent of war” in a 1977 speech. In this same year, he was responsible for forming the US Department of Energy, which combined some existing agencies, including the US Energy Research and Development Administration. He also initiated the Solar Energy Research Institute, in Golden, Colorado, that later became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).Following that time, interest again waned as a result of falling energy prices. President Ronald Reagan removed the solar panels that were placed on the White House under President Carter. Oil again became the primary focus in energy. Various starts and stops to solar development followed, including the start of the large development of the Luz systems in the Mohave Desert area of California, which was later stopped when existing tax credits went away.
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      Strictly speaking, all the practical energy sources for applications to human activities on the Planet Earth are from the sun. Even fossil fuels resulted from millions and millions years of layered deposition of once living plants (and animals eating plants), which obtained their energy intakes and conversion directly and indirectly from solar rays and reached their maturity before they were buried. From ancient times to today, humans have used various ways to harness direct solar radiation, from using it as a heating source to today's electricity generation systems. Solar energy is also responsible for such renewable energy sources as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass. Today, the total energy consumption in the United States still predominantly comes from fossil fuels, although recent interests in investing in wind and solar electricity have been accelerating.
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      Solar thermal power plants, due to their capacity for large-scale generation of electricity and the possible integration of thermal storage devices and hybridization with backup fossil fuels, are meant to supply a significant part of the demand in the countries of the solar belt [1]. Nowadays, the high-temperature thermal conversion of concentrated solar energy is rapidly increasing with many commercial projects taken up in Spain, USA, and other countries such as India, China, Israel, Australia, Algeria, and Italy. This is the most promising technology to follow the pathway of wind energy in order to reach the goals for renewable energy implementation in 2020 and 2050.
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      India has a population of 1.1 billion people (1/6th of the world population) and accounts for less than 5% of the global primary energy consumption. India's power sector had an installed capacity of 159,650 MW [1] as on 30th April, 2010. The share of installed capacity from different sources is shown in Fig. 4.1.The annual generation was 724 Billion units during 2008–2009 with an average electricity use of 704 kWh/person/year. Most states have peak and energy deficits. The average energy deficit is about 8.2% for energy and 12.6% for peak [1]. About 96,000 villages are unelectrified (16% of total villages in India) and a large proportion of the households do not have access to electricity.India's development strategy is to provide access to energy to all households. Official projections indicate the need to add another 100,000 MW within the next decade. The scarcity of fossil fuels and the global warming and climate change problem has resulted in an increased emphasis on renewable energy sources. India has a dedicated ministry focussing on renewables (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, MNRE). The installed capacity of grid connected renewables is more than 15,000 MW. The main sources of renewable energy in the present supply mix are wind, small hydro- and biomass-based power and cogeneration. In 2010, India has launched the Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission (JNSM) as a part of its climate change mission with an aim to develop cost-effective solar power solutions.
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      Solar energy can trace its roots to the early 19th century, when in 1838 French physicist Edmund Becquerel [1],[2] published his findings about the nature of materials being able to turn light into energy. He discovered the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with an electrolytic cell made up of two metal electrodes. Becquerel found that certain materials would produce small amounts of electric current when exposed to light. At the time this was an interesting discovery that was not appreciated.Twenty years passed before Auguste Mouchout [1], a French mathematics teacher, designed and patented the first machine that generated electricity using the sun. Mouchout began his work with solar energy in 1860. He produced steam by heating water using a glass-enclosed, water-filled iron cauldron. Mouchout then added a reflector to concentrate additional radiation onto the cauldron, thus increasing the steam output. He succeeded in using his apparatus to operate a small steam engine.At the 1878 Paris Exhibition, he demonstrated a solar generator that powered a steam engine, similar to the one shown in Figure 5.1. This engine included a mirror and a boiler that drove an ice-maker that produced a block of ice. Later in 1869, Mouchot wrote one of the first books devoted to solar energy: “Le Chaleur Solaire et les Applications Industrielles.” Mouchout's work help lay the foundation for our current understanding of the conversion of solar radiation into mechanical power driven by steam.
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      Since the beginning of NASA over 50 years ago there has been a strong link between the energy and environmental skills developed by NASA for the space environment and the needs of the terrestrial energy program. The technologies that served dual uses included solar, nuclear, biofuels and biomass, wind, geothermal, large-scale energy storage and distribution, efficiency and heat utilization, carbon mitigation and utilization, aviation and ground transportation systems, hydrogen utilization and infrastructure and advance energy technologies such as high-altitude wind, wave and hydro, space solar power (from space to earth) and nanotech photovoltaics. NASA, in particular with wind and solar energy, had extensive experience dating back to the 1970's and 19 80's and continues today to have skills appropriate for solving our nation's energy and environmental issues that mimic in fact those needed for space flight. NASA has long been interested in maturing new laboratory level technologies into industry products and has a well-founded system of interactions with Universities for research leading to Proof-of-Concept and then to prototype demonstrations and mission applications with industry. The capability to assess and then test the feasibility for future commercial development is a well-honed NASA skill. This has certainly promoted new businesses and job growth as a result. That is particularly evident in the case of photovoltaic energy but also relevant for wind energy as well.
  • II. WIND ENERGY

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      The energy from the wind has been harnessed since early recorded history all across the world. There are proofs that wind energy propelled boats along the Nile River around 5000 B.C. The use of wind to provide mechanical power came somewhat later in time — by 200 B.C. simple windmills started pumping water in China, and vertical-axis windmills with woven reed sails were grinding grain in the Middle East. The Europeans got the idea of using wind power from the Persians who introduced it to the Roman Empire by 250 A.D. By the 11th century, a strong focus on technical improvements enabled wind power to be leveraged by the people in the Middle East extensively for food production. Returning merchants and crusaders carried this idea back to Europe where the Dutch refined the windmill and adapted it for draining lakes and marshes in 1300s.In the late 19th century settlers in America began using windmills to pump water for farms and ranches, and later, to generate electricity for homes and industry applications. Although the industrial revolution influenced the propagation of wind energy, larger wind turbines generating electricity continued to appear. The first one was built in Scotland in 1887 by prof. James Blyth from Glasgow. Blyth's 33-ft. tall, cloth-sailed wind turbine was installed in the garden of his holiday home and was used to charge accumulators that powered the lights, thus making it the first house in the world to have its wind power supplied electricity. At the same time across the Atlantic, in Cleveland, Ohio, a larger and heavily engineered machine was constructed in 1888 by Charles F. Brush. His wind turbine had a rotor 17 m in diameter and was mounted on an 18-m tower. Although relatively large, the machine was only rated at 12 kW. The connected dynamo had the ability to charge a bank of batteries or to operate up to 100 incandescent light bulbs, three arc lamps, and various motors in Brush's laboratory. The machine was decomissioned soon after the turn of the century. In the 1940s, the largest wind turbine of the time began operating on a Vermont hilltop known as Grandpa's Knob. This turbine, rated at 1.25 MW fed electric power to the local utility network for several months during World War II.In Denmark, wind power has played an important role since the first quarter of the 20th century, partly because of Poul la Cour who constructed wind turbines. In 1956, a 24-m diameter wind turbine had been installed at Gedser, where it ran until 1967. This was a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, upwind, stall-regulated turbine similar to those used through the 1980s and into the 1990s for commercial wind energy development, see Fig. 7.1. The popularity of using the wind energy has always fluctuated with the price of fossil fuels. When fuel prices fell in the late 1940s, interest in wind turbines decreased, but when the price of oil skyrocketed in the 1970s, so did worldwide interest in wind turbine generators.
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      Humans have been harnessing the energy in the wind for several thousand years. Early uses included sailboats and windmills used to pump water and grind grain into flour — hence the term wind mill. In the 1800s, settlers in the western United States used wooden windmills to pump water, and many are still standing. In the late 1800s, the windmill was connected to an electric generator to produce electricity — hence, wind turbine.In the 1970s and 1980s, wind turbines were clustered into wind farms and connected to the electric grid in California, which marked the first commercial, utility-scale use of wind energy. The size of those wind turbines were 100 kW and smaller. In the following decades, wind turbine technology progressed quickly, and by 2010, grid-connected wind turbines were typically in the 2-MW range and turbines as large as 6-MW have been deployed [17].Adequate wind speeds are essential to the success of wind energy facilities. The potential energy in wind is determined as a function of the cube of the speed. Given the cubic relationship between power and wind speed, when wind speed doubles there is eight times more power available.
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      Interest in the application of modern wind energy grew in the Netherlands in the 1970s when the limit of fossil fuels became clear. Wind energy has been an important source of energy in The Netherlands for centuries and the country was known for the many wooden wind mills especially in the coastal regions. At the same time, research activities in the modern wind energy were started, which have led to the relatively large wind energy research community in the Netherlands today.Wind energy research activities in the Netherlands are predominantly performed at the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Delft University of Technology (DUT). Both institutes are involved in wind energy research since the start of the modern wind turbines, the 1970s. These institutes match their research programs with each other as close as possible. ECN Wind Energy has a research staff of 55 scientists and DUT has a research staff of 15 permanent researchers and more than 35 PhD students. Another institute dedicated to wind energy research is the foundation Knowledge Centre WMC that has been founded by the DUT and ECN in 2003 with an additional research staff of 25 scientists. Although the major part of the wind energy research is concentrated in these institutes, many other universities and scientific institutes contribute to the research with dedicated and specialized research.The current wind energy research and associated industrial activities are taking place in an international context, mostly the European context, therefore the research activities not only take account of the long-term energy research program of the Dutch government, such as the long-term energy research program EOS [1], but also of the R&D priorities defined in the international context, such as the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) of the wind energy sector [2]. The three wind energy research organizations are well represented in international bodies such as European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), European Academy of Wind Energy (EAWE), International Energy Agency (IEA), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Network for Harmonised and Recognised Measurements in Wind Energy (MEASNET), European Wind Energy Technology Platform (TPWind) and the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA).
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      Renewable energy technologies except for large hydroelectric power have, until recently, played a marginal role in most of the countries in terms of energy supply mix and it is no different in developing nations such as India. Global concerns about excessive consumption and mitigation efforts have put Renewable Energy Technologies on centre stage not merely because of their novelty but out of necessity. In this paper we attempt to put in perspective the opportunities and challenges that these emerging technologies face in a wide range of situations afforded by different countries in the region. Approach taken by different countries is analyzed with a peep through the recent historic information and its influence on present and future developments. An attempt is made to estimate future role of the renewable energy technologies in the energy market.
  • III. HYDRO AND TIDAL ENERGY

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      The development of dams on rivers, with associated benefits of water storage for flood control, irrigation, and “hydropower” has played a vital role in advancing civilization throughout history. Of these, hydropower ingeniously and yet so simply combines two of the most fundamental components of nature on planet Earth — water and gravity — to help sustain our survival and improve our lifestyle.This chapter will describe the role of hydropower from past to present and potentially into the future. Hydropower will be demonstrated to be a safe, reliable, and renewable energy resource worldwide, essential to our overall power and energy mix, both traditionally from rivers, through recent and growing development of pumped energy storage from lower to upper water reservoirs and evolving in the future with tidal and wave energy from the oceans.
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      Power generation in India has come a long way from about 1000 MW at the time of independence (August, 1947) to about 160,000 MW as on 31st March 2010 (end of Financial Year). The share of hydro power in this growth, in these over six decades, has also been impressive as it increased from about 500 MW at the time of independence to about 37,000 MW as of March 2010. But the present level of hydro power exploitation is only about 25% of the ultimate installed capacity estimated at 150,000 MW.The demand of power is increasing rapidly (at the rate of over 8% per annum) so has been the realization that hydro power energy, being a renewable source, be exploited to its full available potential. In this endeavor, of the balance over 113,000 MW of power, i.e., yet to be commissioned, projects with about 14,000 MW are under construction and about 100,000 MW are under various stages of implementation.The hydro project implementation and ownership remained with the State Governments or with the Power Corporations owned by States or Central Government for about four and a half decades. Due to slow pace of development and also in line with international stress for liberalization of economy, the Government of India reviewed the policy of power development. In 1992, the power sector was opened up allowing private capital participation in its development along and in parallel with continued development under public sector (under the Five-Year Plan system) [1]. With inherent constraints associated with hydro power development, construction activity in the private sectors did not show expected results in the initial period of over one decade. But it is picking up now and at present projects aggregating to about 25,000 MW are allocated to private developers on build, own, operate, and transfer basis (BOOT). Of these, projects with installed capacity of 20,000 MW are under various stages leading to their implementation including survey investigation, DPR preparation and clearances, about 4000 MW are under construction and over 1400 MW are in operation.
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      Power generation from waves and tidal currents is a nascent industry with the potential to make globally significant contributions to renewable energy portfolios. Further development and deployment of the related, immature technologies present opportunities to benignly tap large quantities of renewable energy; however, such development and deployment also present numerous engineering, economic, ecological, and sociological challenges. A complex research, development, demonstration, and deployment environment must be skillfully navigated if wave and tidal power are to make significant contributions to national energy portfolios during the next several decades.
  • IV. BIO, WASTE, AND GEO THERMAL

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      Oil shortages in the 1970s stimulated the development of new technologies to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and liquid fuels. Combined firing of biomass with coal reduces emissions, provides opportunities for high efficiency, and reduces fossil carbon use. Cofiring and markets for transportation fuels have stimulated global trading in biomass fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass to liquid fuels creates opportunities for co-products, such as biochar, which can help sequester carbon and offset emissions from fossil fuels. This chapter provides an overview of biomass fuels and resources, the biomass power industry, conventional and new technologies, and future trends. Advances in combustion and gasification are described. Thermal and biological conversions to liquid fuels for heat, power, and transportation are described with implications for stationary use.
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      The generation of waste, whether industrial or residential, is a fact of life in our society today. Nearly everything we do creates some type of waste. It is estimated that the United States alone generates 7.6 billion tons per year of non-hazardous industrial waste [1], 48 million tons per year of hazardous waste [2], and 250 million tons per year of municipal solid waste (MSW) [3].Many of the waste streams and industrial by-products we generate each year contain recoverable energy. Capturing and utilizing this energy can create a positive impact both economically and environmentally. It not only extends a material's life cycle, but it also reduces the volume of waste sent to landfills, conserves non-renewable resources, and helps reduce manufacturing costs by providing a lower cost alternative to the rising costs of energy and waste disposal. Depending on the waste and the fossil fuel it is replacing, it may even help reduce our carbon footprint.The volume of waste we generate continues to grow each year. In the United States, MSW generation has increased from 88 million tons in 1960 to 250 million tons in 2008 [4]. The amount of industrial waste has grown as well. Some of this increase is due to the fact that we have 120 million more people in the United States today than we did 50 years ago, but much of it is a result of our changing lifestyles and consumption habits. Today, we use significantly more disposable items than we did 50 years ago, and we have developed thousands of new chemicals, plastics, paints, and adhesives; all of which generate their own production by-products that need to be disposed of. Figure 15.1 shows the growth in MSW generation rates from 1960 to 2008.
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      Geothermal energy constitutes an indigenous, sustainable, continuous, base load renewable resource available to power developers on most continents. This chapter discusses geothermal energy basics, resource exploration, and types of resources along with their utilization, sustainability, benefits, and the potential environmental consequences of resource development. The current state of knowledge and possible expansion of the resource base via Enhanced Geothermal Systems technologies are also discussed.
  • V. FOSSIL AND OTHER FUELS

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      Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) is a term being used to describe a coal fired power plant design with the inlet steam temperature to the turbine at 700°C to 760°C (1292°F to 1400°F). Nickel alloy materials are required. The term Ultra Supercritical (USC) is a term for plants currently designed and operating at 600°C (1112°F) using available and suitable ferritic and stainless steels. Increasing efficiency of the Rankine regenerative-reheat steam cycle to improve the economics of electric power generation and achieve lower cost of electricity has been a long sought after goal. Efficiency has more recently been recognized as a means for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide and its capture costs, as well as a means to reduce fuel consumption costs. Programs have been established by nations, industry support associations and private companies to advance the technology in steam generator design and materials development of nickel based alloys needed for use above 700°C. The worldwide abundance of less expensive coal fuel has driven economic growth. The challenge is to continue to advance the improvement of efficiency for coal fired power generation technology, representing nearly 50% of the United States' (U.S.) production, while helping to maintain economic electric power costs with plants that have favorable electric grid system operational characteristics for turndown and rate of load change response.The Newcomen steam engine operated at about 0.5% thermal efficiency in 1750 [1]. Major efficiency milestones such as James Watt's 1769 patented improvement to a Newcomen steam engine by adding a separate condenser is credited with achieving 2.7% thermal efficiency by 1775 and became a major propellant of the Industrial Revolution due to the economic benefit of the fuel savings attained. Watt's 1782 patent for expansive working, double acting cylinder engine, is credited with achieving 4.5% efficiency by 1792. James Watt, however, is also assailed for causing delay in economic advancement due to his reluctance to raise the working pressure of the steam engine. Lacking in good boiler instrumentation such as reliable water level and pressure gages, Watt's concerns were probably well founded in limiting the operating pressure to about 0.034 MPa (5 psig). After Watt's patents began to expire, Richard Trevithick is credited with engine improvements that permitted increasing steam pressure, to 1MPa (145 psig), to achieve 17% thermal efficiency by 1834.
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      Changing climate and rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere have driven global concern about the role of CO2 in the greenhouse effect and its contribution to global warming. Since it has become widely accepted as the primary anthropogenic contributor, most countries are seeking ways to reduce CO2 emissions in an attempt to limit its effect. This effort has shifted interest from fossil fuels, which have energized the economies of the world for over a century, to non—carbon-emitting or renewable technologies.For electricity generation, the non-carbon technologies include wind, solar, hydropower, and nuclear, whereas low carbon technologies use various forms of biomass. Unfortunately, all current options are significantly more expensive than current commercial fossil-fueled technologies. Although use of wind and solar for power generation is increasing, they are incapable of supplying base load needs without energy storage capacity which is currently impractical at the scale required. The only technologies capable of sustaining base load capacity and potential growth are coal, natural gas, and nuclear. Nuclear has a long lead time to commercial operation, and concerns about long-term disposal of waste have not been resolved. Natural gas, although lower in carbon emissions than coal, still produces CO2, and its availability and price have proven to be volatile. Although recent discoveries have significantly increased availability of natural gas reserves, the pricing impact of higher cost extraction methods is not yet known.In many countries, including the United States, coal is an abundant and low-cost source of fuel for generating electricity. Figure 18.1 shows the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) global electricity-generating capacity by fuel in 2007 and that projected for 2030. It should be noted that the current IEA forecast indicates more than a 70% increase in coal-based power generation by 2030. In the United States, coal currently fuels about 50% of power generation and represents an enormous infrastructure investment. Consequently, it will take considerable investment to move away from this base load fuel.
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      The economic behavior of all fuels share many common characteristics and it is important for the reader to apply principles concerning one fuel to others as the need arises. In many cases, we use the United States as an example. This is because there is better long-term data available than for other countries. In addition, it is a reference point to compare countries especially when evaluating the impact of policies. When comparing fuels we will focus on the cost per Btu and Btu/lb and Btu/ft3. Efficiency in converting Btu's to mechanical or electrical forms of energy is important as well. The scale of the “conversion plant” may affect efficiency and fuel use for a particular purpose.
    • Chapter 20

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      Fossil fuels supply almost all of the world's energy and feedstock demand. Among the fossil fuels, coal is the oldest, most abundant, and widely available form of fossil fuel. Coal constitutes over 75% of the world's fossil fuel. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, coal has been the backbone of the world energy system. Before the discovery of oil and gas, coal was used to generate town gas via gasification for lighting and heating purposes. During World War II, coal gasification technology was extensively used in Germany to produce oil substitutes. After World War II, oil replaced coal as the major source of energy, and the interest in coal gasification remained dormant until the recent rise in energy prices. Since 2000, several gasification plants have become operational, most of these plants are for the production of chemicals and only a handful of plants for power generation.Coal is among the cheapest fuel available. Figure 20.1 compares the historical and projected price of major energy sources in the United States [1]. Projections of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicate that coal is likely to remain the cheapest fuel in the foreseeable future and will likely become cheaper as the price of other preferred energy sources rise. Based on the energy content in terms of price per Btu, electricity commands the highest premium, followed by oil and gas. This price differential is a key driver that determines the interest in coal and its conversion into other energy substitutes.
  • VI. NUCLEAR ENERGY

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      During the 1960s and 1970s, when most nuclear plants in the United States were being designed and constructed, costs escalated in an uncontrolled manner. This was due to many factors, and all interested parties had an influence on the results. This chapter will address these issues, not to accuse or place blame, but to analyze and discuss in order to learn from the past.The first commercial nuclear power plants were designed and constructed in the mid 1950s and early 1960s. Because these plants were based on the new technology of using nuclear reactions to heat water, thus producing steam to turn the turbines, there were no Codes or Standards that specifically addressed nuclear power plant components. Therefore, these early plants used the most applicable Codes and Standards that were available at the time [1–3]. That was the proper course of action.At the time, the question was, what was available in terms of Codes and Standards? What Codes and Standards were really appropriate for pressure vessels and piping in a nuclear power plant? The designers of some nuclear power plant systems considered that question and determined that the nuclear reactor that contained the nuclear fuel was equivalent to a boiler in a fossil fuel power plant. Other designers felt that the nuclear reactor was an unfired pressure vessel. The available Code for the design and construction of the boiler were the American Society of Mechanical Engineer's Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, “Power Boilers” and Section VIII, “Unfired Pressure Vessels.” [1, 2]. Both approaches were correct because the differences between the two ASME Codes were minimal for the design and construction of the pressure vessel. The appropriate Piping Code used was ASME B31.1, “Power Piping” [3]. Both Section I and Section VIII were used for the first nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessels, and B31.1 was used for the associated pressure piping, regardless of whether Section I or Section VIII was used for the nuclear reactor pressure vessel.
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      In the 1960s, nuclear power for electricity production was one of the greatest future economic promises, both in the United States and internationally. Electricity “too cheap to meter” was the claim, and US utilities and supplier corporations jumped in wholeheartedly. Yet 50 years later, the industry is just pulling out of decades-long doldrums. No new nuclear plants have gone on line in the United States for over 30 years. All US Nuclear Steam System Suppliers (NSSSs) are either foreign owned or have major overseas partners, and we no longer have the domestic infrastructure and capacity to produce the components needed for new plants. The current nuclear fleet, although operating safely and economically, generates only about 20% of US electricity. Given shortages of domestic fossil fuels and concerns about greenhouse gases and global warming, not taking greater advantage of this United States—developed energy resource defies logic.What happened? And what can the industry do to keep this from reoccurring during the current reemergence of nuclear power as a major clean energy source of the future? Many of the problems were no doubt political and beyond the scope of this technical article. Yet most were self-inflicted, many of them related to component mechanical and structural integrity that can and should be avoided in the future, if we can learn from the lessons of the past.The purpose of this article is to highlight the issues that the authors have personally seen and been involved in, as engineers and technical managers in the nuclear industry for over 40 years. The authors' backgrounds combine employment at major nuclear vendors during the formative days of the industry, plus utility engineering perspective provided by a co-author who was a utility participant and ultimately chairman of the industry's generic Materials Reliability Program. The article looks retrospectively at the root causes of these problems, itemizes the lessons learned, and recommends an approach going forward that will anticipate and hopefully prevent the industry from repeating these mistakes in the future.
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      In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. Six reactor concepts were chosen for further development: the sodium fast reactor (SFR), the very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), the lead or lead-bismuth cooled liquid metal reactor, the helium gas-cooled fast reactor, the molten salt reactor (MSR), and the super critical water reactor. In view of sustainability, the Generation IV reactors should not only have superior fuel cycles to minimize nuclear waste, but they should also be able to produce process heat or steam for hydrogen production, synthetic fuels, refinery processes, and other commercial uses. These reactor types were described in the 2002 Generation IV roadmap. Different projects around the world have been started since that time. The most advanced efforts are with reactors where production experience already existed. These reactors include the SFR and the VHTR. The other reactor types are still more in a design concept phase. This chapter briefly describes the six Generation IV concepts and then provides additional details, focusing on the two near-term viable Generation IV concepts. The current status of the applicable international projects is then summarized. These new technologies have also created remarkable demands on materials compared with light water reactors (LWRs). Higher temperatures, higher neutron doses, environments very different from water, and design lives of 60 years present a real engineering challenge. These new demands have led to many exciting research activities and to new Codes and Standards developments, which are summarized in the final sections of this chapter.
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      In considering the future of nuclear power for electricity production in the U.S., it is necessary to consider the present public perception of nuclear power. It is also necessary to consider public perceptions of the various competing sources of electricity production. These include coal, natural gas, and the several “green” or “renewable” sources, including hydro, wind, and solar. Note that petroleum is no longer part of this discussion; its use has diminished to barely 1% of electricity production.Chapter 24 makes extensive use of referenced publications of the Nuclear Energy Institute, to take advantage of their expertise on specific subjects. This chapter also makes extensive use of referenced quotations from the works of established authors in the field to minimize misinterpretation of their work.In 1994, about the time that the last nuclear power plant was completed, USA Today announced [1]: “Essentially, the nation decided that nuclear power wasn't worth the price.” …“Nuclear energy provides only 21% of our electrical needs, 4% of our total energy consumption. Is it worth the trouble? Not until the problems of waste, safety and cost are completely resolved.”
  • VII. STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS

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      The fundamental design concepts embodied in steam turbines and generators are fairly simple—allow high pressure steam to expand through a series of blades mounted to a rotating member to extract thermal energy from pressurized steam and convert it to mechanical energy in the form of torque. Then utilize this torque to rotate a large electromagnet past a series of conductors to produce current flow in the conductors—pretty simple. However, as simple as this seems, these are very complicated machines that involve essentially all aspects of engineering—statics and dynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, organic and inorganic chemistry, steam cycle chemistry, materials behavior (stress/strain), fracture mechanics, corrosion, erosion, electrical (power) engineering, electric circuits and circuit models, electromagnetics, control theory and controls, power system analysis, dielectrics and electrical insulation, tribology, and various forms of materials joining from glues and resins to soldering, brazing, and welding.
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      Steam turbines have historically been the prime source of power for electric power generation. Turbines come in a variety of types with regard to inlet and exhaust steam conditions, casing and shaft arrangements and flow directions. This chapter will focus on steam turbines currently being applied to power generation. The steam conditions will include those currently applied to fossil fired power plants, combined cycle and nuclear power units.Currently, fossil fired plants, whether coal fired or gas fired, typically supply steam at 1800 to 3500 psig steam pressures with 950 to 1050°F main steam and reheat temperatures. Double reheat units are few and will not be discussed in this chapter in much detail. Combined cycle plants (CC) typically have multiple drum heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with inlet temperatures of 1050°F for main steam and reheat steam (see Chapter 27). While no new nuclear units have been installed in recent years, plans are underway to apply the AP1000 nuclear systems (see Chapters 23 and 24). Past steam conditions were typically saturated steam (0.2% moisture) and reheat temperature of 500°F. All current applications are condensing designs with regenerative extraction, except for CC units. Current application can be used up to 8 to 10 inHgA exhaust pressure. The application of air cooled condensers is more prevalent in CC applications.Current designs are axial flow turbines. However, in some applications, radial flow stages are used in the inlet stages. Typical arrangements are tandem compound. This means more than one turbine casing's rotors are coupled together on the same shaft. For example a turbine train consisting of a high-pressure turbine (HP), an intermediate-pressure turbine (IP) and two low-pressure turbines (LP) would have all of these in line and coupled to an electric generator. Cross compound units (two or more shafts) are currently in use. Some arrangements have the HP and IP on one shaft along with a generator and the LP turbines on a separate shaft along with another generator. In many instances the low-pressure turbine shaft is running at half speed and has larger annulus areas to reduce LP turbine exhaust velocity and associated leaving losses. However, due to increased blade height and associated exit annulus area for full speed units and the higher costs, cross compound units are not currently in favor. Casing configurations for fossil units are typically high-pressure unit, intermediate-pressure unit, and one or more low-pressure units exhausting to the condenser. The high-pressure and intermediate-pressure units are frequently combined into one casing (HP-IP).
  • VIII. SELECTED ENERGY GENERATION TOPICS

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      Thermal Power Plants are power plants operating on carbon-based fuel such as coal, natural gas, and petroleum products. There are five major types of thermal power plants in use on the power grid today:Steam Turbine Power Plants produce electric power by creating steam at high pressure and temperature (superheated steam at 2000 psia/138 bars and 1500°F/815°C) in boilers, which is then expanded through a steam turbine causing the turbine to drive a generator, which then produces electric power. The steam leaving the turbine is usually sent to a condenser, which maintains a vacuum and where the steam is condensed back to a liquid condensate (water). The steam turbine follows the Rankine Cycle. Steam turbine power plants can produce up to 2000 MW of power and are most widely used plant types in the world. These plants have a thermal efficiency between 28% and 35%.Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants are plants that follow the Brayton Cycle; in gas turbines, the air is compressed in the compressor section of the turbine to a high pressure (580 psia/40 bars) and temperature (1300°F/704°C), and in the combustor the air is further heated to a higher temperature (2600°F/1426°C) at constant pressure. The gas leaving the combustor is at a high pressure and high temperature and is then expanded through the turbine section. The gases leaving the turbine are at a pressure of about (15.0 psia/1.03 bars) and a temperature of about (1200°F/649°C). The turbine drives the gas turbine's compressor and the generator, which produces electric power. These gas turbines can produce up to 300 MW of power. The gas turbine power plant can be installed in 12–18 months, and thus have been used widely in developing nations where energy requirements change rapidly. These plants have a thermal efficiency between 25% and 45% depending on the size of the plant.
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      Hydro Tasmania has developed a remote island power system in the Bass Strait, Australia, that achieves a high level of renewable energy penetration through the integration of wind and solar generation with new and innovative storage and enabling technologies. The ongoing development of the power system is focused on reducing or replacing the use of diesel fuel while maintaining power quality and system security in a low inertia system. In recent years Hydro Tasmania has undertaken several renewable energy developments on King Island with the aim to reduce dependence on diesel, reduce operating cost and greenhouse gas emissions, and demonstrate the potential for renewable energy penetration in power systems. This has been achieved through the substitution of diesel based generation with renewables such as wind and solar and the integration of enabling technologies such as storage and a dynamic frequency control resistor. The projects completed to date include:• Wind farm developments completed in 1997 and expanded to 2.25 MW in 2003;• Installation of a 200 kW, 800 kWh Vanadium Redox Battery (2003);• Installation of a two-axis tracking 100 kW solar photovoltaic array (2008), and• Development of a 1.5 MW dynamic frequency control resistor bank, that operates during excessive wind generation (2010).
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      This chapter describes shell-and-tube and plate and frame types of power plant heat exchangers and tubular closed feedwater heaters and the language that applies to them. The chapter briefly discusses Header Type Feedwater Heaters and their application and use. It defines the design point used to establish exchanger surface and suggests suitable exchanger configurations for various design-point conditions and the criteria used to measure performance. It does not cover power plant main and auxiliary steam surface condensers because of the differences in how they are designed and operated The chapter briefly discusses the effects on the exchanger of normal and abnormal deviations from design point during operation.
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      The subject of this chapter is the capital equipment in a steam power plant that is used to condense the exhaust steam from the lowest pressure turbine, by using water as the cooling medium. In the applied heat transfer literature, such heat transfer equipment is often simply referred to as the “Surface Condenser.” A surface condenser is necessarily a large piece of equipment because more than 60% of the thermal energy produced by a power plant ends up as low enthalpy (waste) heat. This is because of the inherent thermodynamic limitation of the Rankine Cycle, which must be rejected by the condenser to the environment. The heat transfer area in a power plant's surface condenser easily dwarfs that in any other heat exchanger in the plant.Classical thermodynamics holds that the lower the temperature of the heat sink, the higher the efficiency of the Carnot cycle. Therefore, attaining the lowest possible condensing temperature in the heat sink of the Rankine Cycle—the surface condenser—is a primary goal in surface condenser design. Since the saturation temperature and pressure of steam vary in a proportional manner at low pressures, the objective of low condensing temperature translates to that of a low condenser operating pressure. Accordingly, surface condensers are operated at as high a level of vacuum (typically 1.0 to 2.5 in. of mercury absolute) as the quantity and temperature of the cooling water would allow. The subatmospheric condition in the condenser and portions of turbine assembly and auxiliaries promotes leakage of air into the system. In boiling water type of nuclear plants the motive steam acquires additional non-condensibles due to radiological disassociation of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Whatever their origin, these so-called non-condensibles tend to collect in the lowest pressure region in the power cycle which is the steam space in the surface condenser. Unless removed continuously and efficiently, they may sharply interfere with the heat transfer process in the condenser. Kern [8] quotes observed data of Othmer which indicates that even 1% volumetric concentration of air in steam reduces the condensing film coefficient by approximately 45%.The oxygen in the non-condensibles is another source of concern. Oxygen is known to actuate corrosion of condenser internals. Austenitic stainless steel tubing can become highly susceptible to stress corrosion in the presence of even small concentrations of oxygen. Therefore, efficient collection and removal of non-condensibles is of paramount importance in surface condenser design. A reliable design for collection and expulsion of the non-condensibles is particularly important in the surface condensers used in geothermal plants where the steam extracted from the ground has a large fraction of associated gases.
  • IX. EMERGING ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

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      Industrial enterprises have significant negative impacts on the global environment. Collectively, from energy consumption to greenhouse gases to solid waste, they are the single largest contributor to a growing number of planet-threatening environmental problems. According to the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration, the industrial sector consumes 30% of the total energy and the transportation sector consumes 29% of the energy. Considering that a large portion of the transportation energy costs is involved in moving manufactured goods, the energy consumption of the industrial sector could reach nearly 45% of the total energy costs. Hence, it is very important to improve the energy efficiency of our manufacturing enterprises. In this chapter, we outline several different strategies for improving the energy efficiency in manufacturing enterprises. Energy efficiency can be accomplished through energy savings, improved productivity, new energy generation, and the use of enabling technologies. These include reducing energy consumption at the process level, reducing energy consumption at the facilities level, and improving the efficiency of the energy generation and conversion process. The primary focus of this chapter is on process level energy efficiency. We will provide case studies to illustrate process level energy efficiency and the other two strategies.
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      Chapter 32 discusses a variety of nano-coatings and materials used in the energy and power generation fields. Nano-coatings, nano-composite coatings, nano-layered coatings, functional graded coatings, and multifunctional coatings will be presented. These coatings can be deposited by a wide range of methods and techniques including physical vapor deposition processes (PVD) such as cathodic arc, sputtering, and electron beam evaporation as well as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and thermal spray. The various types of nano-coatings and their roles in assisting to generate energy and power for the fuel cell, solar cell, wind turbine, coal, and nuclear industries will also be discussed. This chapter provides a brief description of how the past and present state-of-the-art nano-technology within the different industrial areas such as the turbine, nuclear, fuel cell, solar cell, and coal industries is used to improve efficiency and performance. Challenges facing these industries as pertaining to nano-technology and how nano-technology will aid in the improved performance within these industries will also be discussed. The role of coating constitution and microstructure including grain size, morphology, density, and design architecture will also be presented with regards to the science and relationship with processing-structure-performance relationships. This chapter will conclude with a summary of the future role of nano-technology and nano-coatings and materials in the fields of power generation and energy.
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