Polymers are macromolecules composed with one or more types of repeating monomer units. Biopolymers are polymers synthesized during metabolic process of living organisms. Living organisms are mainly divided into two categories: microorganisms and macroorganisms. Macroorganisms are multicellular organisms (i.e., animal, plants, some fungi and some algae), but microorganisms are unicellular (bacteria, some yeast, some fungi, some algae, etc.) or multicellular (some fungi, some yeasts, some algae, etc) organisms. There are two basic types of cells: prokaryote and eukaryote. Prokaryotic cells are usually unicellular organisms, while eukaryotic cells are composed either unicellular or multicellular organisms. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are mainly synthesized carbohydrates, DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. Nowadays biopolymers such as polysaccharide, DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids have been produced from macro- and micro-organisms.

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