Essential Probability and Statistics


There is a desire for reproducibility. If an experiment is exactly duplicated it will return exactly identical results. Like a calculation of 3 × 5, it does not matter which day, when, or who does the same calculation, the result is reproducibly 15. However, experiments are not exactly reproducible. Sensors age (warm up, corrode, fade) and there are uncontrolled influences on both the experiment (humidity, barometric pressure, human personality, raw material composition) and on its measurement (electromagnetic currents, vibrations, reading parallax, lab analysis, sample aging). Replicate experiments (attempts at exact duplication) will generate a diversity of values, not a single repeated value.

4.1Variation and Its Role in Topics
4.2Histogram and Its PDF and CDF Views
4.3Constructing a Data-Based View of PDF and CDF
4.4Parameters that Characterize the Distribution
4.5Some Representative Distributions
4.6Confidence Interval
4.7Central Limit Theorem
4.8Hypothesis and Testing
4.9Type I and Type II Errors, Alpha and Beta
4.10Essential Statistics for This Text

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