State-of-the-Art of Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP) Systems


With the rapid development of distributed energy supply systems, combined heating and power (CHP) systems and combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems have become the core solutions to improve the energy efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The CCHP system is an extended concept of the CHP system, which has been widely utilized in large-scale centralized power plants and industrial applications. CHP systems are developed to conquer the problem of low energy efficiency of conventional separation production (SP) systems. In SP systems, electric demands, which include daily electricity usage and electric chiller usage, and heating demands are provided by the purchased electricity and fuel, respectively. Since no self-generation exists in SP systems, they are proved to be of low efficiency; however, in CHP systems, most of the electric and heating demands are provided simultaneously by a prime mover together with a heat recovery system, a heat storage system, and so on. Energy demands beyond the system capacity can be supplied by the local grid and an auxiliary boiler. If some thermally activated technologies are introduced, for example, absorption and adsorption chillers, into the CHP to provide the cooling energy, the original CHP system evolves to a CCHP system, which can also be referred to as a trigeneration system and building cooling heating and power (BCHP) system. Since there is no cooling need in winter, the CHP system can be regarded as a special case of the CCHP system. A CCHP system can achieve up to 50% greater system efficiency than a CHP plant of the same size.

1.2Prime Movers
1.3Thermally Activated Technologies
1.4System Configuration
1.5System Management, Optimization, and Sizing
1.6Development and Barriers of CHP/CCHP Systems in Representative Countries

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