Chapter 52
Development of U.S. Regulations for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials—A Look Back over the past 40 Years


Chapter 52, authored by Ronald S. Hafner, covers the historical Development of U.S. Regulations for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Primarily based on the requirements for Type B quantities of radioactive material, the information presented in this chapter includes a number of citations that describe the detailed interactions that have taken place between a variety of U.S. governmental agencies, commissions, and departments, such as, the Department of Transportation and its predecessor, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Department of Energy and its predecessors, the Energy Resource and Development Agency and the Atomic Energy Commission, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, etc. The information presented also includes numerous citations from the interactions that have also taken place between these governmental agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

From a regulatory perspective, the information presented covers the time period from 1965 through 2004, or about 40 years. Starting in 1978, however, the information also begins to look into the interactions that have taken place between the regulatory requirements for transportation packages specified in 10 CFR 71 and the regulatory guidance for transportation packages provided by the NRC in the form of Reg. Guides, NUREGs, and NUREG∕CRs. As is shown throughout the chapter, the regulatory guidance provided by the NRC specifically notes that the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 71 can be met using the additional requirements defined in specific sections of the ASME's Boiler & Vessel Pressure Code as a metric for the design, fabrication, assembly, testing, use, and maintenance of packagings used for the transport of Type B quantities of radioactive materials.

Presented in a chronological format, the information provided in this chapter clearly shows how the current system was developed.

  • 52.1 Introduction
  • 52.2 Background
  • 52.3 Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71)
  • 52.4 Major Changes—1968
  • 52.5 Transfer of Licensing Responsibilities from DOT to AEC
  • 52.6 Double Containment for Plutonium, and Quality Assurance Requirements—1973 to 1978
  • 52.7 NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6
  • 52.8 1979 Proposed Rule, 10 CFR 71
  • 52.9 NUREG∕CR-1815, 1981
  • 52.10 1983 Final Rule, 10 CFR 71
  • 52.11 Additional Regulatory Guidance, NRC, 1985
  • 52.12 Major Changes, 10 CFR 71, 1988 Proposed Rule
  • 52.13 NRC Regulatory Guide 7.11, 1991
  • 52.14 10 CFR 71, 1995 Final Rule
  • 52.15 Double Containment Issues Revisited
  • 52.16 10 CFR 71, 2002 Proposed Rule
  • 52.17 10 CFR 71, 2004 Final Rule
  • 52.18 Conclusions
  • 52.19 Acknowledgements
  • 52.20 References

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