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Chapter 10
Characterization Planning and Surveys

Excerpt

This chapter describes the collection of information needed to plan the decommissioning of a nuclear facility. Characterization is frequently thought of as synonymous to radiation measurement, but the term has a broader meaning. Characterization is the collection of all information needed to describe, in adequate detail, the following:

- The hazards present at/in the facility

- The condition of the facility structure as it may affect worker health and safety

- The extent, nature, and concentration of radiological and hazardous chemical contamination

- The institutional, legal, and technical restraints on decommissioning alternatives

Characterization is an iterative process that precedes and parallels actual decommissioning. The characterization program discussed here is in support of decontaminating structures to protect workers and future site occupants, but this effort is intimately related to the consideration of ground contaminants, beneath and around the structure, and their potential travel to off-site environs.

  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.1.1 Overview
  • 10.1.2 Definitions
  • 10.1.3 Characterization
  • 10.1.4 Sources of Information
  • 10.2 Gathering Information
  • 10.2.1 Construction Records
  • 10.2.2 Design Records
  • 10.2.3 Operating Records
  • 10.2.4 Safety Documentation
  • 10.2.5 Licensing Documents
  • 10.2.6 Personal Testimony
  • 10.2.7 Walkdown Inspection
  • 10.2.8 Sampling and Analysis
  • 10.3 Characterization Planning and Implementation
  • 10.3.1 Planning Approach
  • 10.3.2 Characterization Implementation
  • 10.3.3 Quality Assurance
  • 10.3.4 Data Quality Objectives
  • 10.4 Surveying, Sampling, and Measuring Techniques
  • 10.4.1 Hazardous Materials
  • 10.4.2 In-Situ Monitoring
  • 10.4.3 Sampling and Laboratory Analysis
  • 10.4.4 Radiation and Radionuclides
  • 10.4.5 Sampling and Radiochemical Analysis
  • 10.4.6 Recent Developments in Radiometric Measurements
  • 10.5 Release Determination
  • 10.5.1 Defining Standards for Free Release or Continued Control
  • 10.5.2 Survey Units and Dose Assessments
  • 10.5.3 Performing Final Surveys
  • 10.5.4 Classifying Waste Streams
  • 10.5.5 Considering Ancillary Contamination
  • 10.5.6 Project Acceptance by Management, Regulators, and Stakeholders

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