Chapter 9
Vibration Response of Fluid Distribution Systems


The analysis of fluid distribution systems normally does not consider vibration as a design-basis requirement. However, once the system is put into service vibrations may be observed due to active equipment (pumps or valves) operation or fluid flow, and analysis may be required to determine whether the observed vibration may cause fatigue types of failure of the system involved [1]. Each type of response may correspond to different failure modes; hence, they should be addressed in a specific way corresponding to the type of vibration being observed or considered.

The most typical case is represented by the beam-type response as a result of the excitation of the structural mode shapes. Piping system structural vibrations typically correspond to the low-frequency range (less than 20Hz), while ductwork or other thin-walled distribution systems may respond with higher-frequency plate or shell modes of vibration.

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.1.1 High-Frequency Vibration Mechanics
  • Turbulent Flow
  • Rotating and Reciprocal Motion of Attached Active Components
  • Cavitation
  • 9.2 Excitation Mechanisms and Distribution System Response
  • 9.3 Vibration Analysis According to ASME Nuclear Standard [1]
  • 9.3.1 General Requirements
  • 9.3.2 Classification of Vibratory Regimes
  • Steady-State Vibrations
  • Vibration Monitoring Group 2 (VMG 2)
  • Vibration Monitoring Group 3 (VMG 3)
  • Transient Vibrations
  • Vibration Monitoring Group 1 (VMG 1)
  • Vibration Monitoring Group 2 (VMG 2)
  • Vibration Monitoring Group 3 (VMG 3)
  • 9.3.3 Monitoring Requirements and Acceptance Criteria
  • Vibration Monitoring Group 1
  • Steady-State Vibrations
  • Transient Vibrations
  • ASME B and PUC Section III Class 1 Piping Systems
  • ASME Class 2 and 3 ASME B31 Piping Systems Vibration Monitoring Group 2
  • Vibration Monitoring Group 3
  • 9.4 Simplified Methods
  • 9.4.1 Visual Inspection
  • Evaluation Methods
  • 9.4.2 Displacement Method
  • Deflection Limits
  • 9.4.3 Velocity Method
  • Instrumentation
  • Maximum Allowable Velocity
  • Precautions
  • Velocity Criterion used for Screening
  • 9.5 Inaccessible Pipes
  • 9.6 Evaluation of the Fatigue Effect due to Operating Vibrations by Analysis
  • 9.6.1 Evaluation of the Usage Factor for Cycling Loads
  • 9.7 Corrective Actions
  • 9.7.1 Stress Analyses and Supplementary Measurements
  • 9.8 Use of Pipework Viscous Dampers to Reduce Vibration of Piping
  • 9.9 References

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