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Well Control

Excerpt

Well control refers to drilling techniques that keep formation fluids from erupting at the surface. There are three levels of well control: 1) drilling mud, 2) annular preventer and 3) mechanical rams within a blowout preventer stack (BOP). Maintaining mud pressure slightly higher than formation pressures is non-disruptive and is the first line of defense against a blow-out. The annular preventer is used to shut-in a well and to remove a kick. Mechanical rams (pipe, shear, blind) are used as a last resort. This chapter covers the application of these well control techniques.

11.1Drilling Mud, Formation and Fracture Pressures
11.2Intensity of a Well Kick
11.3Detecting a Well Kick while Drilling
11.4Taking a Kick while Making a Trip
11.5Effect of Gas Cutting on Well Bore Pressure
11.6Determining the Magnitude of a Kick
11.7U-Tube Representation of a Shut-In Well
11.8Calculations Used in Removing a Kick
11.9Circulating Out a Kick
11.10Example of Killing a Well
11.11Problems
11.12List of References
11.13Appendix

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