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Trenched and Elevated River Crossings

Excerpt

Historically, the frequency of pipeline exposures and failures at river crossings has exceeded that of overland pipelines. Major recent projects, especially those in extreme environments in the Arctic or the rugged terrain of the Andes in South America, have evolved the science of river crossing design. Extensive regulatory reviews of major projects have also influenced the design process significantly. Government mandated operational monitoring requirements and the owners’ integrity monitoring programs have, in combination with the more rigid design process and improved quality control during construction, reduced integrity concerns associated with river crossings.

5.1Introduction
5.2Design – Trenched Crossings
5.3Design – Elevated Crossings
5.4Construction - Trenched Crossings
5.5Operational Monitoring
Acknowledgment
References
Topics: Rivers

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