Chapter 3
Natural Gas Transmission


In this chapter, the general flow equation for compressible flow in a pipeline will be derived from basic principles. Having obtained the general flow equation, the way in which flow efficiency is affected by varying different gas and pipeline parameters will be examined. Different flow regimes in gas transmission systems (i.e., partially turbulent and fully turbulent flow) will be presented. Some of the widely used transmission equations and their applications, advantages, and limitations will be outlined.

This will be followed by a discussion of pipes in series, pipeline looping, gas velocity, line packing, pipeline maximum operating pressure, and some pipeline codes. The impact of gas temperature on the flow efficiency and gas temperature profile (i.e., heat transfer from a buried pipeline and Joule-Thompson effects) will be discussed.

Finally, some major economic aspects and considerations in the design of gas pipeline systems will be presented.

  • Introduction
  • General Flow Equation — Steady State
  • Natural Gas Higher and Lower Heating Values
  • Impact of Gas Molecular Weight and Compressibility Factor on Flow Capacity
  • Flow Regimes
  • Widely Used Steady-State Flow Equations
  • Summary of the Impact of Different Gas and Pipeline Parameters on the Gas Flow Efficiency
  • Pressure Drop Calculation for Pipelines in Series and Parallel
  • Pipeline Gas Velocity
  • Erosional Velocity
  • Optimum Pressure Drop for Design Purposes
  • Pipeline Packing
  • Determining Gas Leakage Using Pressure Drop Method
  • Wall Thickness∕Pipe Grade
  • Temperature Profile
  • Optimization Process
  • Gas Transmission Solved Problems
  • References

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