Chapter 4
Gas Compression and Coolers


Compression is required in gas pipelines to overcome pressure losses that occur over the length of the pipeline. Gas is generally received from receipt points along the pipeline and delivered to sales stations at specified flows and pressures. Between these points, a pressure drop occurs due to gas expansion, friction loss, a change in elevation, or a change in temperature. Altering the flow will change the pressure in the pipeline. The following methods can be applied to maintain the required pressure at an existing delivery point when there is an increase in flow rate beyond the design point:

• Loop the pipeline

• Add a compressor station

• Utilize both a loop and compression

The evaluation of the method that will be economically more feasible depends on many factors, including:

• Capital expenditures

• Fuel cost

• Emissions

• Maintenance

• Future expansions

  • Introduction
  • Types of Compressors
  • Compressor Drivers
  • Compressor Station Configuration
  • Thermodynamics of Isothermal and Adiabatic Gas Compression
  • Temperature Change in Adiabatic Gas Compression
  • Thermodynamics of Polytropic Gas Compression
  • Gas Compressors in Series
  • Centrifugal Compressor Horsepower
  • Enthalpy∕Entropy Charts (Mollier Diagram)
  • Centrifugal Compressor Performance Curve
  • Influence of Pipeline Resistance on Centrifugal Compressor Performance
  • Reciprocating Compressors
  • Gas Compression Solved Problems
  • Gas Coolers
  • Introduction
  • Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
  • Cooler Heat Transfer Equations
  • Fan Air Mass Flow Rate
  • Required Fan Power
  • Gas Pressure Drop in Coolers
  • Iterative Procedure for Calculations Based on Unknown T2
  • References

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