Chapter 2
Measurement Systems


This chapter discusses pipeline measurement systems in the context of centralized automation. It addresses general measurement system characteristics, introduces their measurement devices, and discusses the data required for an automation system. This chapter does not address issues related to the selection and installation of measurement systems. Reference (1) discusses flow measurement subjects extensively with an emphasis on meter selection and installation. This chapter restricts the discussion of measurements to those required for custody transfer. Meter stations are discussed in Chapter 3.

The purpose of a measurement system is to determine a numerical value that corresponds to the variable being measured. Measurements are required for producers, customers and transportation companies. Transportation companies include pipeline, trucking and other transportation media. Pipeline companies charge their shippers for the transportation services based on the measured quantities of the products they have transported, assuming that they satisfy other transportation requirements such as the product quality. Measurements are also required for control and operation of pipelines.

The quantities typically measured for custody transfer and monitoring or controlling facilities are:

• Volume flow rate or accumulated volume

• Mass

• Energy

• Pressure

• Temperature

• Density for liquid or composition for gas

• Quality

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Measurement System and Characteristics
  • 2.3 Flow Measurements
  • 2.4 Pressure Measurement
  • 2.5 Temperature Measurement
  • 2.6 Density Measurement
  • 2.7 Chromatograph

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