Chapter 13
Application of Non-Linear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) to In Vitro Damage Assessment in Cortical Bone


This chapter reviews recent experimental findings applying non-linear dynamical techniques, termed nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS), to infer progressive mechanical damage in human bone, in vitro. Standard measures of bone mechanical properties are compared where possible, including the quasistatically derived stiffness and hysteresis. The goal is to explore whether or not the methods can ultimately be applied in vivo, for applications such as diagnosing and monitoring the progression of osteoporosis, as well as bone healing. It is shown that the NEWS methods are extremely sensitive to progressive damage, far more so than the other methods applied. The results are promising, and current discussion involves how to conduct similar experiments in vivo.

  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Introduction and Background
  • 13.2 Introduction to Elastic Non-Linearity
  • 13.3 Theory
  • 13.4 Experiments
  • 13.4.1 Samples
  • 13.4.2 Experimental Protocol
  • 13.4.3 Non-Linear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy
  • 13.4.4 Non-Linear Wave Modulation Spectroscopy
  • 13.5 Results
  • 13.5.1 NRUS Observations
  • 13.5.2 NWMS Observations
  • 13.6 Discussion and Conclusions
  • References

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