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Chapter 2
Oscillatory Ventilation in the Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Diseases

Excerpt

The premature lung is structurally immature, fluid-filled, and surfactant-deficient, leading to the development of a variety of respiratory disorders in neonates. The challenge in clinical practice lies in providing adequate gas exchange through ventilation techniques that minimize any adverse effects on lung development. Non-invasive methods of ventilation have thus become an increasingly popular area of research. This chapter focuses on such methods that use pressure oscillations in conjunction with traditional respiratory support techniques to treat neonatal respiratory diseases. Current research and developments in “noisy” ventilation, high-frequency ventilation and oscillatory continuous positive airway pressure are discussed, thereby outlining the promise they show in future developments in neonatal respiratory care.

  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Background
  • 2.3 Defining Related Terminology
  • 2.3.1 RDS
  • 2.3.2 Surfactant and Surface Tension
  • 2.3.3 Respiratory System Parameters and Mechanics
  • 2.4 Therapies and Techniques for Treating Neonatal Respiratory Diseases
  • 2.4.1 Surfactant Therapy
  • 2.4.2 Traditional Ventilation Treatments
  • 2.4.3 High-Frequency Ventilation
  • 2.4.4 Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) with Pressure Oscillations
  • 2.4.5 Biologically Variable Ventilation
  • 2.4.6 Summary
  • 2.5 Modeling the Interaction of Neonatal Lungs with Respiratory Devices
  • 2.5.1 A Simplified Single-Compartment Viscoelastic Model
  • 2.5.2 Investigation Into Resonance Phenomena
  • 2.6 Results and Discussion
  • References

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