Chapter 9
Advances in Computational Modeling of Sound Propagation in the Lungs and Torso with Diagnostic Applications


Computational models for simulating sound propagation in the lungs and torso are developed and evaluated. A theoretical model for sound propagation in the airways is developed and coupled with an acoustic boundary element model for sound propagation in the lung parenchyma and a finite element model for sound propagation in the surrounding chest wall. Models are validated theoretically and numerically, and compared with experimental studies on lung-chest phantom models that simulate the lung pathology of pneumothorax. Studies quantify the effect of the simulated lung pathology on the resulting acoustic field. This work is relevant to the development of advanced auscultatory techniques for lung, vascular, and cardiac sounds within the torso, and may be useful in the development of a more effective educational tool for teaching stethoscopic skills in the future.

  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.1.1 Background
  • 9.1.2 Objectives
  • 9.2 Modeling Sound Transmission in the Bronchial Airways
  • 9.2.1 Overview
  • 9.2.2 Mathematical and Diagrammatic Description of the Subglottal Model
  • 9.3 Acoustic Boundary Element Model of the Lung Parenchymae & Chest wall
  • 9.3.1 Basic Theory
  • 9.3.2 Coupled Boundary Conditions for Surrounding Shell-Like Structure
  • 9.3.3 Simulating a Pneumothorax (PTX)
  • 9.3.4. Coupling the Subglottal Airway Acoustic Model With the Parenchymae∕Chest Wall BE∕FE Model
  • 9.4 Theoretical and Numerical Studies
  • 9.4.1 Theoretical Study of the Effect of Pneumothorax on Airway Input Acoustic Impedance
  • 9.4.2 Theoretical Validation of the BE Model
  • 9.4.3 Numerical Validation of BE Model for PTX Case
  • 9.5 Experimental Phantom Study to Evaluate Acoustic Boundary Element Model
  • 9.5.1 Setup
  • 9.5.2 Results and Discussion
  • 9.6 Numerical Study of the Visible Human Male — Merging the Airway Model With the Lung∕Chest Model
  • 9.6.1 Setup
  • 9.6.2 Results and Discussion
  • 9.7 Conclusion
  • References

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