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Chapter 13
Nanomechanical Cantilever Biosensors: Conceptual Design, Recent Developments, and Practical Implementation

Excerpt

Micro∕nanocantilever-based sensors have recently emerged as an effective means for label-free chemical and biological species detection. Selectivity, low cost, and easy mass production make them an enabling technology for micro-detection and nanodetection techniques. These sensors operate through the adsorption of species on the functionalized surface of cantilevers. Through this functionalization, molecular recognition is directly transduced into a micromechanical response. This chapter presents a brief overview of microcantilever-based biosensors fabrication, the underlying principles of operation, modeling frameworks, techniques of microcantilever actuation, common materials used in fabrication of these sensors, and biological species detection techniques. More specifically, a detailed description of different operational modes of microcantilever biosensors is presented, followed by a set of comprehensive mathematical modeling frameworks. The chapter concludes with clinical applications of this type of biosensor, along with a review of recent developments and representative practical examples.

  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Microcantilever-Based Biosensing
  • 13.2.1 Surface Stress Sensing
  • 13.2.2 Mass Sensing
  • 13.3 Different Bio-Detection Methods
  • 13.4 Modeling Microcantilever Beam With Adsorbed Biological Species
  • 13.4.1 Static Mode (Deflection-Detection Method)
  • 13.4.2 Dynamic Mode (Frequency-Response Measurement)
  • 13.5 Recent Advances in Nanomechanical Cantilever Sensors' Modeling and Sensitivity Enhancement
  • 13.6 Common Materials Used in Nanocantilever Biosensors
  • 13.7 Common Methods of Nanocantilever Actuation
  • 13.7.1 Actuation Due to Ambient Conditions
  • 13.7.2 Actuation Using External Energy Sources
  • 13.8 Common Methods of Signal Transduction
  • 13.8.1 Optical Readout
  • 13.8.2 Piezoresistive Readout
  • 13.8.3 Piezoelectric Readout
  • 13.8.4 Capacitive Readout
  • 13.9 Applications
  • 13.10 Summary
  • References

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