Chapter 12
Dynamic Analysis — Part 1: SDOF Systems and Basics


A static load is applied slowly and gradually to the piping or other structural system. It does not involve any time factor, nor the inertia of the mass. On the other hand, a dynamic load is applied rapidly to the piping or other structural systems. The manner in which the dynamic load is applied, in addition to the magnitude of the load, substantially affects the system response. In dealing with dynamic loads, not only is the time factor important; the mass that represents the inertia of the structure is also important.

This chapter deals with some fundamental concepts of dynamic loads and the common types of loads that are related to piping engineering. Due to space limitations and to allow piping design engineers to get into the subject quickly, only the practical basics are discussed. Readers who are interested in more theoretical treatments should consult specialized books on structural dynamics [1—3] for further details.

  • 12.1. Impact and Dynamic Load Factor
  • 12.2. SDOF Structures
  • 12.2.1 Working Formula for SDOF Systems
  • 12.2.2 Un-Damped SDOF Systems
  • 12.2.3 Damped SDOF Systems
  • 12.2.4 Summary of the Characteristics of SDOF Vibration
  • 12.3. Damping
  • 12.4. Sonic Velocity Versus Flow Velocity
  • 12.4.1 Sonic Velocity
  • 12.4.2 Flow Velocity
  • 12.5. Shaking Forces due to Fluid Flow
  • 12.6. Safety Valve Relieving Forces
  • 12.6.1 Open Discharge System
  • 12.6.2 Closed Discharge System
  • 12.7. Steam Turbine Trip Load

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