Chapter 4
Package-to-Board Interconnection


Once the product design is accomplished, based on the functionality and operating environment requirements, the components are assembled onto the printed wiring board (PWB). The choice of the package-to-board interconnection scheme also depends on the performance and reliability requirements of the product. It should be amenable for product upgrades, repair, and reworkability (Behun et al., 1997). Several interconnection materials have been in use and include metallurgical systems such as Sn–Pb, Sn–Bi, Sn–Ag–Cu, etc., and conductive adhesives. Some of these are discussed in some detail to provide the fundamentals and essentials.

  • Introduction
  • Tin–Lead System
  • Cu–Sn System
  • Sn–Ni System
  • Sn–Au System
  • Tin–Lead–Silver Alloy System
  • Lead-Free Interconnection Alloys
  • Sn–Ag Alloy
  • Sn–Bi Solder
  • Sn–Cu Alloy
  • Au–Sn Solder
  • Sn–In Solder
  • Ternary Alloys–Tin–Copper–Silver Alloys
  • Super Cooling
  • Solder—Substrate Interface Structure
  • Interface Nickel–Gold Surface
  • Kirkendall Voiding
  • Adhesive Interconnections
  • Isotropic Conductive Adhesives
  • Anisotropic Conductive Adhesives
  • Intrinsically Conductive Adhesives
  • Interconnection Process/the Assembly
  • Wave Soldering
  • Fluxes
  • Surface Mount Assembly
  • Stencils
  • Insertion Mount and Surface Mount Technologies in Perspective
  • Repair
  • Rework
  • Suggested Reading
  • References
  • Exercises

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